PYTHON LANGUAGE TUTORIAL PDF
dovolena-na-lodi.info . Since this program is expressed in the Python language, not machine . of the more esoteric features of Python and concentrates on the programming basics that transfer directly to. Open source general-purpose language. • Object Oriented, Procedural, Functional. • Easy to interface with C/ObjC/Java/Fortran. • Easy-ish to. comprehensive walk-through of Python programming in a clear, Here are reasons why you would prefer to learn and use Python over other high level.
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My goal here is for something that is partly a tutorial and partly a reference book. I like how tutorials get you up and running quickly, but they can. This tutorial gives enough understanding on Python programming language. Audience. This tutorial is designed for software programmers who need to learn. Fundamentals of Python Programming dovolena-na-lodi.info pythonbook/dovolena-na-lodi.info .. We stick with the basics and explore.
It is available on many desktop and server platforms to help you create the code that you are looking for. But it is not ready to go into mobile computing. Perhaps in the future Python will decide to go into the future and develop a version that will be able to work well with various mobile devices.
Until then, programmers will have to be satisfied with using it on their desktop and laptop computers. Restrictions with the design If you are looking to work with a program that has a lot of design options, the Python program may not be the right option for you. The design language is not up to what you will find with some of the other option. Since you are working with a program that is dynamically typed, it takes more testing and can have more errors that will only show up when you are running the program.
The global interpreter lock means that you can only have one thread access the internals of Python at a time. This may not be as important anymore since it is easy to spawn the tasks out to different processes, but the design is not as nice as some of the other options that you would like.
A good way to work with the design is to remember that indentation is important with Python. Other programming languages are going to use a lot of brackets to show the difference in lines and information inside the program, but Python is going to rely on indentations.
Make sure to be careful with using this to avoid issues and errors that can come up. Python can be one of the best programs that you use to write your own codes and have some fun.
Chapter 3: Common Terms You Should Know with Python Before you get too far into your programming with Python, it is important to understand some of the words that can make the programming easier to understand.
This chapter is going to take some time to look at the different words that are common in Python programming, and which we do talk about a bit in this guidebook, to help avoid some confusion and to help you get started with your first code. Class—this is a template that was used for creating user-defined objects. Docstring—this is a string that will appear lexically first expression inside a module, function, or class definition.
The object will be available to documentation tools. Function—this is a block of code that is invoked when using a calling program.
It is best used in order to provide a calculation or an autonomous service. This is the basic interpreter and editor environment that you can use along with Python. It is good for those who are just beginning with this and can work for those on a budget. Immutable—this is an object within the code that is assigned a fixed value. This could include tuples, strings, and numbers. This can be helpful in some cases, such as the keys in a dictionary.
Interactive—one thing that a lot of beginners like about Python is that it is so interactive. You can try out some different things in the interpreter and see how they will react right away in the results. It is a good way to improve your programming skills, test out a new idea you have and more.
List—this is a datatype within Python that is built in. It contains a mutable sequence of values that are sorted. It can include immutable values of numbers and strings as well.
Mutable—these are the objects that will be able to change their value within the program, but which are able to keep their original id. Object—within Python, this is any data with a state, such as a value or an attribute, as well as a defined behavior, or a method. Python —Python 2 and Python 3 are the main two types of Python that are available. Many people have stuck with Python 2 since Python 3 does not have any backwards capabilities and they like using the databases on the older version.
Python is a mythical option of Python that does allow this backward capability so you can use it and the Python 2. String—this is one of the most basic types that you will find in Python that will store the text. In Python 2, the strings will store text so that the string type can then be used to hold onto binary data. Triple quoted string—this is a string that has three instances of either the single quote or the double quote. They are used for many reasons.
They can help you to have double and single quotes in a string and they make it easier to go over a few lines of code without issues.
Tuple—this is a datatype that has been built into Python. This datatype is an immutable ordered sequence of values. The sequence is the only part that is immutable.
Type—this is a category or sort of data that is represented in the programming languages. These types are going to differ in their properties, they including immutable and mutable options, as well as in their functions and methods.
Python includes a few of these including dictionary types, tuple, list, floating point, long, integer, and string. Chapter 4: Getting Started with Python Now that we know some of the benefits of choosing this program, it is time to get started with it. Before you are able to learn some of the great steps that are needed to make this program create code for you, it is time to set up the environment.
For those who have a computer with Mac OS X or Ubuntu, you will already have Python installed on the system This can make things easier to get started as you will just need to click on the icon to get started. Windows computers will need to install Python. The following steps work for Windows 7 to Download Python—you can choose between Python 2 or Python 3.
Both are fantastic options; it just depends on which one will get the job done for you. Click to run the Python Installer. When you get to the options, choose to Customize Installation. You will see a box pop up. Click on every box that is under Optional Features and then continue. On the next screen, look for the Advanced Options and then choose where you would like to have Python install.
Once you have gotten this far, the next part is to set up your PATH variable. This is going to allow the user to include directories for all the components and packages that are needed. To do this step: Open up the Control Panel on the Windows computer. Look up Environment. Under System Environment Variable, click on Edit. Then click on Environment Variables. You may have to look a bit for the next part, but look for User Variables.
You can then either create a new one or edit an existing path. To create a new path, select PATH as the name and add it to the directories that are there.
Make sure that each Variable Values is separated with a semicolon. If you want to edit your existing path, you need to make sure that each value is on a different line. Click on New and then put your directories on different lines.
Now you can open your command prompt. You can then type in Exit and hit Enter to get back to the command prompt. Text Editor You will not be able to program Python without having the text editor in place on your computer. If you are using Windows, the Notepad function will work. Make sure that you are not using Word though, it is not considered an editor and your code is not going to save on the system properly. Click again to Close.
Otherwise, follow the other instructions that come on the screen to set this editor up. Once the program is on your computer it is time to learn more about the coding and functions that you can enjoy on Python.
This should download along with Python if you are setting it up, but make sure to check into this while you are going through the process. This is the environment that you are going to work with when you are on Python and it can make things easy. The main features of using IDLE with your Python programming include: Integrated debugger with persistent breakpoints, call stack visibility, and stepping to make things easier Python shell that will highlight the syntax Multi-window text editor that can help with the indentation, highlighting, and completing the code.
Now, you can choose to use another environment, like those that we discussed above if needed, but since this one often comes as an option with Python and it is designed to work well with this system, there are many people who choose to go with this option.
You may want to try out this program ahead of time and see if it is the right one for you or if you would like to use one of the options above.
Getting Python set up on your computer is a pretty easy process. You can wait just a short amount of time to get Python on your computer and then you are good to go and try out some of the codes you want to make.
Chapter 5: Learning the Basics of Python Programming Now it is time to get to know a bit more about Python programming and how you can make it work for you. You will need to learn a bit more about the different keywords and the variables that come with Python so you are able to write the words that you want and make the program perform in a certain way.
Keywords When you are working on a new computer coding program, you are going to notice that each computer language will have certain keywords. These are the words that are meant for a specific command or purpose in the language and you should try to avoid using them anywhere else.
For Python version 3
If you do use these words in other parts of your code, you may end up with an error alert or the program not working properly. All o these will be given a name that is also known as an identifier. There are a few rules that you need to follow when forming an identifier in Python including: It should contain letters, either uppercase or lowercase or a combination of the two, numbers, and the underscore. You should not see any spaces inside. If you break one of these rules, the program will close on you and will show a syntax error.
In addition, you need to work on making identifiers that are legible to the human eye. While the identifier may make sense to the computer and get through without causing issues on the computer, a human is the one who will read through the code to use it themselves. Some of the rules that you should follow when creating an identifier that will be readable to the human eye include: The identifier should be descriptive—you should pick out name that is going to describe what is inside the variable or will describe what it does.
While there are a lot of ways that you can write out your code, you should be careful and stick with one rule throughout. For example, both MyBestFriend and mybestfriend work in the coding world, but pick one that you like and do it the same each time that you work in the program to avoid confusion.
You can also add in underscores into this or numbers, just be careful that you keep things consistent. Flow of Control When working on the Python language, you are going to write out the statements in a list format, just like you would when writing out a shopping list. The computer will start with the first instruction before working through each of them in the order that you make them show up on the list.
So you will need to write out the controls that you want just like you would for your grocery shopping list to make sure that the computer is reading it properly.
The computer will only stop reading through this list once it has done the final instruction to completion. This is known as the flow of control. This is an important way to get started. You want to make sure that your flow of control is even and smooth for the computer to read. Semi-colons and Indentation When you look at some of the other computer languages, you will notice that there are a lot of curly brackets used to arrange the different blocks of code or to begin and end the statements.
This helps you to remember to indent the code blocks in these languages to make the code easier to read, although the computer will be able to read the different codes without the indentations just fine. This type of coding can make it really difficult to read. You will see a lot of unnecessary information that is required for the computer to read the code, but can make it hard on the human eye to read this. Python uses a different way of doing this, mostly to help make it easier on the human eye to read what you have.
You are going to need to ident the code for this to work. With Python though, you will use line ends to tell the computer when an instruction will end.
You will be able to use a semi-colon if you have a few instructions that are on the same line, but this is often considered bad form within the language. Letter Case Most computer languages will treat uppercase and lowercase letters the same, but Python is one of the only ones that will be case sensitive.
This means that the lower case and upper case letters will be treated differently in the system. Keep in mind as well that all the reserved words will use lower case except for None, False, and true. These basics are going to make it easier to get started on the Python programming. You need to take a bit of time to go through the program in order to get familiar with it. Try out a few of the examples above first to help you get started.
Python works to keep things as basic as possible because it understands that most of its users are going to be beginners or those who are tired of other complex languages. As you can see here, and in the following chapters, there are simple commands that you will be able to put forward in order to get the program to work a specific way.
Study these and you can make a great program without quite as much work. It is one of the most interactive options that you will run into when getting started in programming and since it is so easy to use. In this chapter, we will take some time to discuss more about comments and some of the other aspects of Python so you are able to get started and make your codes amazing in no time.
In Python programming a comment is one that will start with the sign and then will continue on until you get to the end of the line. They are basically there to say what the program is supposed to do and how it will work.
It is a bit more detailed and can be helpful without getting in the way of how the code works. You will not need to leave a comment on every line, just when it is needed.
Writing and Reading Some programs are going to show the text you want on the screen, or they can request certain information. You may want to start out the program code by telling the reader what your program is all about.
Giving it a name or a title can make things easier so the other coder knows what is in the program and can pick the right one for them. So if there are double quotes at the beginning of your phrase, make sure that you keep up with the double quotes at the end as well. The print function is going to take up its own line so you will notice that after putting this in, the code will automatically place you on a new line.
If you would like to have the visitor do a certain action, you can go with the same kind of idea. The text will be placed right after the prompt.
You will also need to convert the string into a number for the program to work. If you do the following option with just the parentheses and nothing inside, you will get the same result and sometimes makes it easier. Files For the most part, you will use the print function to get a string to print to the screen.
This is the default of the print function, but you can also use this same function as a good way to write something onto a file. In the spot with you opened up the myfile. Then in the second part, you wrote in Hello!
To the file as a new line and then the w told the program that you will only be able to write the changes when the file is open. The write method will often work well too. For example, you can replace the print with write like the example below to get the same things. In addition to those options, you can use the read method in order to open a specific file and then to read the data that is there. This can make it easier to open up the programs that you would like to read.
Built In Types Your computer is capable of processing a lot of information including numbers and characters. The types of information that the Python program will use are known as types and the language will contain many different types to help make things easier. Some of these include string, integers, and floating point numbers.
Programmers can even define these different types using classes. Types will consist of two separate parts. The first part is a domain that will contain a possible set of values and the second part is a set that contains the possible operations. Both of these can be performed on any value. An example of this is that if you have a domain that is a type of integer, it can only contain integers inside it including addition, division, multiplication, and subtraction.
One thing to note with this is that Python is a dynamically typed program. The same variables can be used to store the values of different types. Despite this, Python still needs you to have all the variables with a definitive type. For example, if the programmer tried to add in a number to a string, the Python program would recognize this and show an error. Integers If you want to use integers as a type, you need to keep them as whole numbers. These can be positive or negative numbers, as long as there are no decimals with these numbers.
If you have a decimal point in the number, even if the number is 1. If you would like to put the number and the string together, you need to make sure that the number has turned into a string. Operator Precedence One thing that you need to keep track of when you are working in Python is operator precedence.
Python has a method that will help you to order the operation properly so that you get the right information to come up.
Python Tutorial Books
For example, when it comes to integer operation, Python is going to handle everything that is brackets first. If you are writing an expression that has a number of operations in it, you will need to keep those signs in mind.
This will tell Python how to go through the numbers so that you can get the right answers at the time.
Keep in mind that most arithmetic operators are going to be left associative so write it out that way for Python to read. They are going to work the same way as a list does, but they will contain a bit more functionality that is specific to the text.
Formatting strings can be a challenge when it comes to writing out your out your code. There is a way to get this to work right for string formatting. Next Steps and Where to Go From Here When you are done with the book, you can take a look at project-based tutorials to put your knowledge into play while creating projects that can help you solve problems.
While you are working on these projects, you can continue to refer to the chapters in this book as reference material.
Anyone who learns how to code can contribute to an open-source project. Open-source software is software that is freely available to use, redistribute, and modify.
Contributing to open-source projects helps improve software by ensuring that it is representative of the broad base of technology end-users. When users contribute to open-source projects through code, technical documentation, or repository maintenance, their diverse perspectives provide added value to the project and the larger developer community.
Download the Complete eBook! How To Code in Python eBook in PDF format For additional Python resources and to participate in discussion with others, check out our growing library of tutorials, questions, and projects with the Python tag.
Python Tutorial Books
No experience necessary to begin, and you can even try the book out for free to see if the method works for you. You can visit the companion site to the book at http:…learnpythonthehardway. Starting out in this crazy, open-source forest is daunting, and even with years of experience, it still requires continual effort to keep up-to-date with the best libraries and techniques.
This report helps you explore some of the lesser known Python libraries and tools, including third-party modules and several extremely useful tools in the standard library that deserve more attention. Some have been simple and silly; others were embarrassing and downright costly. In this paper, David Mertz, a director of Python Software Foundation, examines the functional aspects of the language and points out which options work well and which ones you should generally decline.
The Python programming language is at the center of these fundamental changes in computing education.It is an interpreted language so this will slow it down compared to some of the other options that are compiled languages.
This report provides a brief yet comprehensive introduction to Python for engineers, researchers, and data scientists who are already familiar with another programming language.
However, it does depend on what you are translating. We will do everything to help you! The main features of using IDLE with your Python programming include: Integrated debugger with persistent breakpoints, call stack visibility, and stepping to make things easier Python shell that will highlight the syntax Multi-window text editor that can help with the indentation, highlighting, and completing the code.
Your book has hopefully equipped me for it. The language has undergone many changes throughout the years, especially since it has become open sourced for other companies and individuals to work with, but it has still maintained its simplicity and ability to work well with people who are new to programming.