DER RICHTER UND SEIN HENKER EBOOK EN
Buy Der Richter und sein Henker (Kommissär Bärlach ) (German Edition): Read 11 Kindle Store Reviews - dovolena-na-lodi.info eBook features: Highlight, take notes, and search in the book; Length: pages; Enhanced Typesetting: Enabled; Page Flip: Enabled; Language: German. Get this from a library! Der Richter und sein Henker.. [Friedrich Dürrenmatt].
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Get this from a library! Friedrich Durrenmatt: Der Richter und sein Henker. [ Friedrich Durrenmatt; William Gillis; John J Neumaier]. Based on some encounters of many individuals, it remains in truth that reading this Der Richter Und Sein. Henker (German Edition) By Friedrich Durrenmatt. I'm trying to find a copy of Der Richter und sein Henker that I can import into Lingq to read. I cannot, for the life of me, find anything but an.
Der Richter und sein Henker.
More Details Original Title. Bern , Switzerland. Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Der Richter und sein Henker , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Der Richter und sein Henker.
Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. This is a bit like taking the essence of detective novels and distilling it down to concentrate. Great plot, excellent twists, and great finale. I immediately bought all other detective novels he wrote. Likewise, all Frie "The difference between humans and wild animals is that humans pray before they commit murder. But I am a big fan of tight, penetrating existential novels such as The Stranger and Nausea , and, let me tell you, The Judge and His Hangman is every bit as tight and as penetrating and as existential as these two French classics.
To say anything about plot more than a brief sketch would be to say too much since nearly every page contains subtle turns and developments that will keep a reader mesmerized from beginning to end.
Usually I take my time with a novel but once I read the first page of The Judge and His Hangman I was hooked — I finished its one hundred pages in one evening, in one sitting. The location is in Switzerland, in and around the capital of Berne.
But, above all, there is the philosophic: An absolute must read for anyone attracted to either existentialism or detective novels. View all 20 comments. Unfortunately I guessed the killer very early. View 2 comments. It was first published in English in , in a translation by Cyrus Brooks and later in a translation by Therese Pol. Together wit Requiem for the Detective Novel, these stories are considered classics of crime fiction, fusing existential philosophy and the detective genre.
Se il fine giustifica i mezzi Una intricata "partita a scacchi" iniziata molti anni prima nella lontana e misteriosa Istanbul. View all 6 comments. This is a perfect novella. Both stories revolve around the theme of two antagonists who are reunited by circumstances that occurred decades apart. He worked a number of years in Turkey and then in Frankfurt, Germany, where he was forced to leave in after slapping a superior officer who was a Nazi.
His grizzled wisdom is hidden behind a curtain of an unorthodox lifestyle and seemingly lax work habits. His path crosses with a man he met 40 years earlier in Istanbul. One believes in his criminal genius, which is borne out by his political power. The other devotes his life to fighting crime. The Judge and his Executioner seems, for most part, a compact, tense crime-noir novel. Knowing the ending just makes them better. That plus his asides on Swiss culture make it a real treat.
Due dialoghi che reggono l'intero romanzo, forse era meglio a racconto? Avrei abbandonato il libro se non facesse parte di una sfida di lettura. Questo romanzo breve non mi lascia niente per oltre 60 pagine. La prima svolta avviene durante l'incontro tra il commissario B. Odio l'infodump in ogni sua forma. E purtroppo ce ne sono molti. Quando poi lo mette per ingannare il lettore, mi ha fatto girare le scatole: Indossava un impermeabile e teneva le braccia incrociate sul petto.
Le mani erano infilate dentro guanti di pelle gialla Frase messa esclusivamente per traviare il lettore quanti indossavano questi guanti gialli all'epoca? Il commisario B. Finale Il confronto finale con l'assassino e lo snocciolamento delle trappole, studiate a monte dal commissario B, sono degne di un freddo e spietato manipolatore molto bella quella del cane. Ho fatto del mio scopo il tuo scopo.
View all 15 comments. E spronerai mentalmente il fidato collaboratore del vecchio ispettore, che riconoscerai come solerte, ma comunque non empaticamente vicino come Barlach. La natura umana, imperfetta come la giustizia. E proprio non potrai evitarlo, di ricordare un vecchio film. Chi tiene le fila del nostro destino, chi decide quali saranno le nostre azioni e i nostri comportamenti, chi ha le chiavi che aprono le porte al nostro domani e alla giustizia alla quale aspiriamo?
Nessuno sfugge alla logica generativa del male, in questo racconto. E togliere il fiato al lettore, perseguitato da infinite incertezze, trascinato in un cosmo di disordinate solitudini, complice la meravigliosa sospensione di ogni attendibile preconcetto. View all 4 comments. And he also likes to jump over the boundaries of the classic detective story: Occasionally the style was a bit too imaginative his description of threatening natural phenomena even reminded me of Dutch author Couperus , and the bet on which the intrigue rests, is perhaps a little far-fetched, but all in all this is a nice story.
Such a good, satisfying read! It doesn't matter that it is blink-of-the-eye short. Of course I picked this up knowing it is a mystery novel, and although the murder is discovered on the first page, I almost didn't feel as if I should be trying to solve it alongside Inspector Barlach. Barlach knows things we don't, unlike many detectives in other novels. The specific details of what he knows aren't ever revealed, but the core of what he knows is peeled back so that we see the dirty underneath.
I quite liked the visuals presented through his writing. The Barlach characterization is quite good. If I were to describe the lesser characterizations as caricatures, I would be selling them short. Should the demand for tickets on the due date be greater than the quantity of available tickets, allocations will be made by lot.
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General business conditions A comprehensive list of business conditions in German is posted in the box office and can be found on www. For reservations, contact the Marketing Office: Bars and Buffets are in the stalls, 1st tier and 3rd tier. Thomas More 13 proud, morose, and absurd judgments of things in many places, particularly once in England.
More knows well what he was , that was not less venerable for his wisdom and virtues than for the high character he bore: He spoke both gracefully and weightily; he was eminently skilled in the law, had a vast understanding, and a prodigious memory; and those excellent talents with which nature had furnished him were improved by study and experience.
When I was in England the King depended much on his counsels, and the Government seemed to be chiefly supported by him; for from his youth he had been all along practised in affairs; and, having passed through many traverses of fortune, he had, with great cost, acquired a vast stock of wisdom, which is not soon lost when it is purchased so dear.
One day, when I was dining with him, there happened to be at table one of the English lawyers, who took occasion to run out in a high commendation of the severe execution of justice upon thieves, 'who,' as he said, 'were then hanged so fast that there were sometimes twenty on one gibbet! Schlachten, abschlachten, erschlagen, Gemetzel, Schlachtung. In this,' said I, 'not only you in England, but a great part of the world, imitate some ill masters, that are readier to chastise their scholars than to teach them.
There are dreadful punishments enacted against thieves, but it were much better to make such good provisions by which every man might be put in a method how to live, and so be preserved from the fatal necessity of stealing and of dying for it.
There is a great number of noblemen among you that are themselves as idle as drones, that subsist on other men's labour, on the labour of their tenants, whom, to raise their revenues, they pare to the quick. This, indeed, is the only instance of their frugality, for in all other things they are prodigal, even to the beggaring of themselves; but, besides this, they carry about with them a great number of idle fellows, who never learned any art by which they may gain their living; and these, as soon as either their lord dies, or they themselves fall sick, are turned out of doors; for your lords are readier to feed idle people than to take care of the sick; and often the heir is not able to keep together so great a family as his predecessor did.
Now, when the stomachs of those that are thus turned out of doors grow keen, they rob no less keenly; and what else can they do?
For when, by wandering about, they have worn out both their health and their clothes, and are tattered, and look ghastly, men of quality will not entertain them, and poor men dare not do it, knowing that one who has been bred up in idleness and pleasure, and who was used to walk about with his sword and buckler, despising all the neighbourhood with an insolent scorn as far below him, is not fit for the spade and mattock; nor will he serve a poor man for so small a hire and in so low a diet German buckler: Landwirtschaft, Bauernhof, Bauernwirtschaft, Ackerbau.
But this bad custom, so common among you, of keeping many servants, is not peculiar to this nation. In France there is yet a more pestiferous sort of people, for the whole country is full of soldiers, still kept up in time of peace if such a state of a nation can be called a peace ; and these are kept in pay upon the same account that you plead for those idle retainers about noblemen: They think raw men are not to be depended on, and they sometimes seek occasions for making war, that they may train up their soldiers in the art of cutting throats, or, as Sallust observed, "for keeping their hands in use, that they may not grow dull by too long an intermission.
The fate of the Romans, Carthaginians, and Syrians, and many other nations and cities, which were both overturned and quite ruined by those standing armies, should make others wiser; and the folly of this maxim of the French appears plainly even from this, that their trained soldiers often find your raw men prove too hard for them, of which I will not say much, lest you may think I flatter the English.
Every day's experience shows that the mechanics in the towns or the clowns in the country are not afraid of fighting with those idle gentlemen, if they are not disabled by some misfortune in their body or dispirited by extreme want; so that you need not fear that those well-shaped and strong men for it is only such that noblemen love to keep about them till they spoil them , who now grow feeble with ease and are softened with their effeminate manner of life, would be less fit for action if they were well bred and well employed.
And it seems very unreasonable that, for the prospect of a war, which you need never have but when you please, you German cherish: Kehlen, Abkehlen, Abstechen, Gurgeln. But I do not think that this necessity of stealing arises only from hence; there is another cause of it, more peculiar to England.
They stop the course of agriculture, destroying houses and towns, reserving only the churches, and enclose grounds that they may lodge their sheep in them. As if forests and parks had swallowed up too little of the land, those worthy countrymen turn the best inhabited places into solitudes; for when an insatiable wretch, who is a plague to his country, resolves to enclose many thousand acres of ground, the owners, as well as tenants, are turned out of their possessions by trick or by main force, or, being wearied out by ill usage, they are forced to sell them; by which means those miserable people, both men and women, married and unmarried, old and young, with their poor but numerous families since country business requires many hands , are all forced to change their seats, not knowing whither to go; and they must sell, almost for nothing, their household stuff, which could not bring them much money, even though they might stay for a buyer.
German words that contain e. Utopia Webster's German Thesaurus Edition. One shepherd can look after a flock, which will stock an extent of ground that would require many hands if it were to be ploughed and reaped. This, likewise, in many places raises the price of corn.
The price of wool is also so risen that the poor people, who were wont to make cloth, are no more able to buy it; and this, likewise, German arable: Thomas More 17 makes many of them idle: But, suppose the sheep should increase ever so much, their price is not likely to fall; since, though they cannot be called a monopoly, because they are not engrossed by one person, yet they are in so few hands, and these are so rich, that, as they are not pressed to sell them sooner than they have a mind to it, so they never do it till they have raised the price as high as possible.
And on the same account it is that the other kinds of cattle are so dear, because many villages being pulled down, and all country labour being much neglected, there are none who make it their business to breed them. The rich do not breed cattle as they do sheep, but buy them lean and at low prices; and, after they have fattened them on their grounds, sell them again at high rates. And I do not think that all the inconveniences this will produce are yet observed; for, as they sell the cattle dear, so, if they are consumed faster than the breeding countries from which they are brought can afford them, then the stock must decrease, and this must needs end in great scarcity; and by these means, this your island, which seemed as to this particular the happiest in the world, will suffer much by the cursed avarice of a few persons: And to this last a man of a great mind is much sooner drawn than to the former.
Luxury likewise breaks in apace upon you to set forward your poverty and misery; there is an excessive vanity in apparel, and great cost in diet, and that not only in noblemen's families, but even among tradesmen, among the farmers themselves, and among all ranks of persons.
You have also many infamous houses, and, besides those that are known, the taverns and ale- houses are no better; add to these dice, cards, tables, football, tennis, and quoits, in which money runs fast away; and those that are initiated into them must, in the conclusion, betake themselves to robbing for a supply. Banish these plagues, and give orders that those who have dispeopled so much soil may either rebuild the villages they have pulled down or let out their grounds to such as will do it; restrain those engrossings of the rich, that are as bad almost as German ale: If you do not find a remedy to these evils it is a vain thing to boast of your severity in punishing theft, which, though it may have the appearance of justice, yet in itself is neither just nor convenient; for if you suffer your people to be illeducated, and their manners to be corrupted from their infancy, and then punish them for those crimes to which their first education disposed them, what else is to be concluded from this but that you first make thieves and then punish them?
And, that I may begin where I promised, there were four things--' 'Hold your peace! But, Raphael,' said he to me, 'I would gladly know upon what reason it is that you think theft ought not to be punished by death: On the contrary, they would look on the mitigation of the punishment as an invitation to commit more crimes. Thomas More 19 injury: God has commanded us not to kill, and shall we kill so easily for a little money? But if one shall say, that by that law we are only forbid to kill any except when the laws of the land allow of it, upon the same grounds, laws may be made, in some cases, to allow of adultery and perjury: If, by the Mosaical law, though it was rough and severe, as being a yoke laid on an obstinate and servile nation, men were only fined, and not put to death for theft, we cannot imagine, that in this new law of mercy, in which God treats us with the tenderness of a father, He has given us a greater licence to cruelty than He did to the Jews.
Upon these reasons it is, that I think putting thieves to death is not lawful; and it is plain and obvious that it is absurd and of ill consequence to the commonwealth that a thief and a murderer should be equally punished; for if a robber sees that his danger is the same if he is convicted of theft as if he were guilty of murder, this will naturally incite him to kill the person whom otherwise he would only have robbed; since, if the punishment is the same, there is more security, and less danger of discovery, when he that can best make it is put out of the way; so that terrifying thieves too much provokes them to cruelty.
They condemned such as they found guilty of great crimes to German adultery: But the method that I liked best was that which I observed in my travels in Persia, among the Polylerits, who are a considerable and well-governed people: Thus they have no wars among them; they live rather conveniently than with splendour, and may be rather called a happy nation than either eminent or famous; for I do not think that they are known, so much as by name, to any but their next neighbours.
Those that are found guilty of theft among them are bound to make restitution to the owner, and not, as it is in other places, to the prince, for they reckon that the prince has no more right to the stolen goods than the thief; but if that which was stolen is no more in being, then the goods of the thieves are estimated, and restitution being made out of them, the remainder is given to their wives and children; and they themselves are condemned to serve in the public works, but are neither imprisoned nor chained, unless there happens to be some extraordinary circumstance in their crimes.
They go about loose and free, working for the public: They suffer no other uneasiness but this of constant labour; for, as they work for the public, so they are well entertained out of the public stock, which is done differently in different places: In some places they are set to no public work, but every private man that has occasion to hire workmen goes to German backward: Pracht, Glorie, Ruhm, Prunk, Ehre.
If they go lazily about their task he may quicken them with the whip. By this means there is always some piece of work or other to be done by them; and, besides their livelihood, they earn somewhat still to the public. They all wear a peculiar habit, of one certain colour, and their hair is cropped a little above their ears, and a piece of one of their ears is cut off.
Their friends are allowed to give them either meat, drink, or clothes, so they are of their proper colour; but it is death, both to the giver and taker, if they give them money; nor is it less penal for any freeman to take money from them upon any account whatsoever: Those of every division of the country are distinguished by a peculiar mark, which it is capital for them to lay aside, to go out of their bounds, or to talk with a slave of another jurisdiction, and the very attempt of an escape is no less penal than an escape itself.
It is death for any other slave to be accessory to it; and if a freeman engages in it he is condemned to slavery. Those that discover it are rewarded--if freemen, in money; and if slaves, with liberty, together with a pardon for being accessory to it; that so they might find their account rather in repenting of their engaging in such a design than in persisting in it.
Nor is there any hazard of their falling back to their old customs; and so little do travellers apprehend mischief from them that they generally make use of them for guides from one jurisdiction to another; for there is nothing left them by which they can rob or be the better for it, since, as they are disarmed, so the very having of money is a sufficient conviction: The only danger to be feared German accessory: Lebensunterhalt, Broterwerb, Erwerb, Erwerbsquelle, Gelderwerb.
Sklaverei, Sklavenarbeit, Knechtschaft, Sklavenleben. None are quite hopeless of recovering their freedom, since by their obedience and patience, and by giving good grounds to believe that they will change their manner of life for the future, they may expect at last to obtain their liberty, and some are every year restored to it upon the good character that is given of them.
German Made Easy G PB 01 Edition - When I had related all this, I added that I did not see why such a method might not be followed with more advantage than could ever be expected from that severe justice which the Counsellor magnified so much.
To this he answered, 'That it could never take place in England without endangering the whole nation. There was a Jester standing by, that counterfeited the fool so naturally that he seemed to be really one; the jests German commended: There was a divine present, who, though he was a grave morose man, yet he was so pleased with this reflection that was made on the priests and the monks that he began to play with the Fool, and said to him, 'This will not deliver you from all beggars, except you take care of us Friars.
Now the Jester thought he was in his element, and laid about him freely. We have, likewise, a bull, by which all that jeer us are excommunicated. More, I have run out into a tedious story, of the length of which I had been ashamed, if as you earnestly begged it of me I had not observed you to hearken to it as if you had no mind to lose any part of it.
I might have contracted it, but I resolved to give it you at large, that you might observe how those that despised what I had proposed, no sooner perceived that the Cardinal did not dislike it but presently approved of it, fawned so on him and flattered him to such a degree, that they in good earnest applauded those things that he only liked in jest; and from hence you may gather how little courtiers would value either me or my counsels.
Thomas More 25 my childhood; and though you are, upon other accounts, very dear to me, yet you are the dearer because you honour his memory so much; but, after all this, I cannot change my opinion, for I still think that if you could overcome that aversion which you have to the courts of princes, you might, by the advice which it is in your power to give, do a great deal of good to mankind, and this is the chief design that every good man ought to propose to himself in living; for your friend Plato thinks that nations will be happy when either philosophers become kings or kings become philosophers.
It is no wonder if we are so far from that happiness while philosophers will not think it their duty to assist kings with their counsels. But Plato judged right, that except kings themselves became philosophers, they who from their childhood are corrupted with false notions would never fall in entirely with the counsels of philosophers, and this he himself found to be true in the person of Dionysius.
For instance, what could I signify if I were about the King of France, and were called into his cabinet council, where several wise men, in his hearing, were proposing many expedients; as, by what arts and practices Milan may be kept, and Naples, that has so often slipped out of their hands, recovered; how the Venetians, and after them the rest of Italy, may be subdued; and then how Flanders, Brabant, and all Burgundy, and some other kingdoms which he has swallowed already in his designs, may be added to his empire?
One proposes a league with the Venetians, to be kept as long as he finds his account in it, and that he ought to communicate counsels with them, and give them some share of the spoil till his success makes him need or fear them less, and then it will be easily taken out of their hands; another proposes the hiring the Germans and the securing the Switzers by pensions; another proposes the gaining the Emperor by money, which is omnipotent with him; another proposes a peace with the King German aversion: Abneigung, Antipathie, Widerwille, Widerwillen.
Upon which the good prince was forced to quit his new kingdom to one of his friends who was not long after dethroned , and to be contented with his old one. To this I would add that after all those warlike attempts, the vast confusions, and the consumption both of treasure and of people that must follow them, perhaps upon some misfortune they might be forced to throw up all at last; therefore it seemed much more eligible that the king should improve his ancient kingdom all he could, and make it flourish as much as possible; that he should love his people, and be beloved of them; that he should live among them, govern them gently and let other kingdoms alone, since that which had fallen to his share was big enough, if not too big, for him: Another proposes a pretence of a war, that money might be raised in order to carry it on, and that a peace be concluded as soon as that was done; and this with such appearances of religion as might work on the people, and make them impute it to the piety of their prince, and to his tenderness for the lives of his subjects.
A third offers some old musty laws that have been antiquated by a long disuse and which, as they had been forgotten by all the subjects, so they had also been broken by them , and proposes the levying the penalties of these laws, that, as it would bring in a vast treasure, so there might be a very good pretence for it, since it would look like the executing a law and the doing of justice.
A fourth proposes the prohibiting of many things under severe penalties, especially such as were against the interest of the people, and then the dispensing with these prohibitions, upon great compositions, to those who might find their advantage German antiquated: Another proposes that the judges must be made sure, that they may declare always in favour of the prerogative; that they must be often sent for to court, that the king may hear them argue those points in which he is concerned; since, how unjust soever any of his pretensions may be, yet still some one or other of them, either out of contradiction to others, or the pride of singularity, or to make their court, would find out some pretence or other to give the king a fair colour to carry the point.
For if the judges but differ in opinion, the clearest thing in the world is made by that means disputable, and truth being once brought in question, the king may then take advantage to expound the law for his own profit; while the judges that stand out will be brought over, either through fear or modesty; and they being thus gained, all of them may be sent to the Bench to give sentence boldly as the king would have it; for fair pretences will never be wanting when sentence is to be given in the prince's favour.
It will either be said that equity lies of his side, or some words in the law will be found sounding that way, or some forced sense will be put on them; and, when all other things fail, the king's undoubted prerogative will be pretended, as that which is above all law, and to which a religious judge ought to have a special regard. Thus all consent to that maxim of Crassus, that a prince cannot have treasure enough, since he must maintain his armies out of it; that a king, even though he would, can do nothing unjustly; that all property is in him, not excepting the very persons of his subjects; and that no man has any other property but that which the king, out of his goodness, thinks fit to leave him.
And they think it is the prince's interest that there be as little of this left as may be, as if it were his advantage that his people should have neither riches nor liberty, since these things make them less easy and willing to submit to a cruel and unjust government. Whereas necessity and poverty blunts them, makes them patient, beats them down, and breaks that height of spirit that might otherwise dispose them to rebel.
Now what if, after all these propositions were German beats: It is also certain that they are much mistaken that think the poverty of a nation is a mean of the public safety.
Who quarrel more than beggars? If a king should fall under such contempt or envy that he could not keep his subjects in their duty but by oppression and ill usage, and by rendering them poor and miserable, it were certainly better for him to quit his kingdom than to retain it by such methods as make him, while he keeps the name of authority, lose the majesty due to it.
Friedrich Durrenmatt : Der Richter und sein Henker
Nor is it so becoming the dignity of a king to reign over beggars as over rich and happy subjects. And therefore Fabricius, a man of a noble and exalted temper, said 'he would rather govern rich men than be rich himself; since for one man to abound in wealth and pleasure when all about him are mourning and groaning, is to be a gaoler and not a king. So he that can find no other way for correcting the errors of his people but by taking from them the conveniences of life, shows that he knows not what it is to govern a free nation.
He himself ought rather to shake off his sloth, or to lay down his pride, for the contempt or hatred that his people have for him takes its rise from the vices in himself. Let him live upon what belongs to him without wronging others, and accommodate his expense to his revenue. Let him punish crimes, and, by his wise conduct, let him endeavour to prevent them, rather than be severe when he has suffered them to be too common.
Let him not rashly revive laws that are abrogated by disuse, especially if they have been long forgotten and never wanted. And let him never take any penalty for the breach of them to which a judge would not give way in a private man, but would look German abound: Trauer, Trauernd, betrauernd, Trauern, beweinend.
To these things I would add that law among the Macarians--a people that live not far from Utopia-by which their king, on the day on which he began to reign, is tied by an oath, confirmed by solemn sacrifices, never to have at once above a thousand pounds of gold in his treasures, or so much silver as is equal to that in value. This law, they tell us, was made by an excellent king who had more regard to the riches of his country than to his own wealth, and therefore provided against the heaping up of so much treasure as might impoverish the people.
He thought that moderate sum might be sufficient for any accident, if either the king had occasion for it against the rebels, or the kingdom against the invasion of an enemy; but that it was not enough to encourage a prince to invade other men's rights--a circumstance that was the chief cause of his making that law.
He also thought that it was a good provision for that free circulation of money so necessary for the course of commerce and exchange.
Der Richter und Sein Henker
And when a king must distribute all those extraordinary accessions that increase treasure beyond the due pitch, it makes him less disposed to oppress his subjects. Such a king as this will be the terror of ill men, and will be beloved by all the good. Discourses so much out of the road could not avail anything, nor have any effect on men whose minds were prepossessed with different sentiments.
This philosophical way of speculation is not unpleasant among friends in a free conversation; but there is no room for it in the courts of princes, where great affairs are carried on by authority. If when one of Plautus' comedies is upon the stage, and a company of servants are acting their parts, you should come out in the garb of a philosopher, German accessions: Therefore go through with the play that is acting the best you can, and do not confound it because another that is pleasanter comes into your thoughts.
It is even so in a commonwealth and in the councils of princes; if ill opinions cannot be quite rooted out, and you cannot cure some received vice according to your wishes, you must not, therefore, abandon the commonwealth, for the same reasons as you should not forsake the ship in a storm because you cannot command the winds.
You are not obliged to assault people with discourses that are out of their road, when you see that their received notions must prevent your making an impression upon them: I am sure I cannot do it.
But though these discourses may be uneasy and ungrateful to them, I do not see why they should seem foolish or extravagant; indeed, if I should either propose such things as Plato has contrived in his 'Commonwealth,' or as the Utopians practise in theirs, though they might seem better, as certainly they are, yet they are so different from our establishment, which is founded on property there being no such thing among them , that I could not expect that it would have any effect on them.
But such discourses as mine, which only call past evils to mind and give warning of what may follow, leave nothing in them that is so absurd that they may not be used at any time, for they can only be unpleasant to those who are resolved to run headlong the contrary way; and if we must let alone everything as absurd or extravagant--which, by reason of the wicked lives of many, may seem uncouth--we must, even among Christians, give German blessing: The greatest parts of His precepts are more opposite to the lives of the men of this age than any part of my discourse has been, but the preachers seem to have learned that craft to which you advise me: But I see no other effect of this compliance except it be that men become more secure in their wickedness by it; and this is all the success that I can have in a court, for I must always differ from the rest, and then I shall signify nothing; or, if I agree with them, I shall then only help forward their madness.
I do not comprehend what you mean by your 'casting about,' or by 'the bending and handling things so dexterously that, if they go not well, they may go as little ill as may be;' for in courts they will not bear with a man's holding his peace or conniving at what others do: Torheiten, Dummheiten, Narreteien, Narrheiten. So that there will be two sorts of people among them, who deserve that their fortunes should be interchanged--the former useless, but wicked and ravenous; and the latter, who by their constant industry serve the public more than themselves, sincere and modest men--from whence I am persuaded that till property is taken away, there can be no equitable or just distribution of things, nor can the world be happily governed; for as long as that is maintained, the greatest and the far best part of mankind, will be still oppressed with a load of cares and anxieties.
I confess, without taking it quite away, those pressures that lie on a great part of mankind may be made lighter, but they can never be quite German anxieties: Kompass, der Kompass, Zirkel. These laws, I say, might have such effect as good diet and care might have on a sick man whose recovery is desperate; they might allay and mitigate the disease, but it could never be quite healed, nor the body politic be brought again to a good habit as long as property remains; and it will fall out, as in a complication of diseases, that by applying a remedy to one sore you will provoke another, and that which removes the one ill symptom produces others, while the strengthening one part of the body weakens the rest.
How can there be any plenty where every man will excuse himself from labour? If people come to be pinched with want, and yet cannot dispose of anything as their own, what can follow upon this but perpetual sedition and bloodshed, especially when the reverence and authority due to magistrates falls to the ground? I do not deny but we are more ingenious than they are, but they exceed us much in industry and application.
They knew little concerning us before our arrival among them. They call us all by a general name of 'The nations that lie beyond the equinoctial line;' for their chronicle mentions a shipwreck that was made on their coast twelve hundred years ago, and that some Romans and Egyptians that were in the ship, getting safe ashore, spent the rest of their days amongst them; and such was their ingenuity that from this single opportunity they drew the advantage of learning from those unlooked-for guests, and acquired all the useful arts that were then among the Romans, and which were known to these shipwrecked men; and by the hints that they gave them they themselves found out even some of those arts which they could not fully explain, so happily did they improve that accident of having some of our people cast upon their shore.
But if such an accident has at any time brought any from thence into Europe, we have been so far from improving it that we do not so much as remember it, as, in aftertimes perhaps, it will be forgot by our people that I was ever there; for though they, from one such accident, made themselves masters of all the good inventions that were among us, yet I believe it would be long before we should learn or put in practice any of the good institutions that are among them.
And this is the true cause of their being better governed and living happier than we, though we come not short of them in point of understanding or outward advantages. I ordered my servants to take care that none might come and interrupt us, and both Peter and I desired Raphael to be as good as his word.
When he saw that we were very intent upon it he paused a little to recollect himself, and began in this manner: Unterbrechung, unterbrechen, interrupt, ins Wort fallen. Its figure is not unlike a crescent. Between its horns the sea comes in eleven miles broad, and spreads itself into a great bay, which is environed with land to the compass of about five hundred miles, and is well secured from winds.
In this bay there is no great current; the whole coast is, as it were, one continued harbour, which gives all that live in the island great convenience for mutual commerce. But the entry into the bay, occasioned by rocks on the one hand and shallows on the other, is very dangerous. In the middle of it there is one single rock which appears above water, and may, therefore, easily be avoided; and on the top of it there is a tower, in which a garrison is kept; the other rocks lie under water, and are very dangerous.
The channel is known only to the natives; so that if any stranger should enter into the bay without one of their pilots he would run great danger of shipwreck. On the other side of the island there are likewise many harbours; and the coast is so fortified, both by nature and art, that a small number of men can hinder the descent of a great army.
But they report and there remains good marks of it to make it credible that this was German breadth: Utopus, that conquered it whose name it still carries, for Abraxa was its first name , brought the rude and uncivilised inhabitants into such a good government, and to that measure of politeness, that they now far excel all the rest of mankind.
Having soon subdued them, he designed to separate them from the continent, and to bring the sea quite round them. To accomplish this he ordered a deep channel to be dug, fifteen miles long; and that the natives might not think he treated them like slaves, he not only forced the inhabitants, but also his own soldiers, to labour in carrying it on.Join or Login Home: Shows.
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