23 SAL ALI DASHTI PDF
This is a persian (Farsi) book by Ali Dashti titled Bisto se sal. The author criticizes Islam. dovolena-na-lodi.info .. Ali Dashti was therefore obliged to have Bist O Seh Sal (Twenty Three Years), his major work in this field, printed abroad. Ali Dashti Compiled and edited by Bahram Choobineh Publications Alborz pages ISBN:
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||17.58 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.33 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Twenty-three Years, by Iranian thinker Ali Dashti, is one of my I am happy to share this link to a PDF of the book which I have found online. Free PDF ebooks (user's guide, manuals, sheets) about Ali dashti 23 Bist o Seh Sal بيست و سه سال [Roman transliteration of and Persian for. 23 Years by Ali Dashti. by jimzbundMay 27, no comment http://www. dovolena-na-lodi.info
Kakh-e ebda', andisheha-ye gunagun-e Hafez, on various ideas expressed by Hafez On Ethics, Theology and Philosophy: Parda-ye pendar and twice reprinted , on Sufism Iranian-Islamic mysticism. Jabr ya ekhtiyar anonymous and undated, contents first published in the periodical Vahid in , dialogues with a Sufi about predestination and free will.
Takht-e Pulad anonymous and undated, contents first published in the periodical Khaterat in , dialogues in the historic Takht-e Pulad cemetery of Esfahan with a learned 'alem who sticks to the letter of the Qur'an and the Hadith. Oqala bar khelaf-e 'aql and twice reprinted, revised versions of articles first published in the periodicals Yaghma in and , Vahid in , and Rahnoma-ye Ketab in , with two additional articles , on logical contradictions in arguments used by theologians , particularly Mohammad ol- Ghazzali — Dar diyar-e Sufiyan , on Sufism , a continuation of Parda-ye pendar.
Novels: Ali Dashti sympathized with the desire of educated Iranian women for freedom to use their brains and express their personalities; but he does not present a very favourable picture of them in his collections of novelettes: Fetna and , Jadu and Hendu His heroines engage in flirtations and intrigues with no apparent motive except cold calculation.
Nevertheless, these stories are very readable, and they provide a vivid, and no doubt partly accurate, record of the social life of the upper classes and the psychological problems of the educated women in Tehran at the time.
He was its editor until 1 March , when Ma'el Tuyserkani took over. Mosahab has another note on Dashti which he published as an anonymous author in the Shafagh newspaper around the same time.
He indicates Dashti's article in a newspaper back in where Dashti addresses Reza Pahlavi as a "national symbol". Dashti's alleged role in Reza Pahlavi's assumption of power was so large that the famous poet Mohammad-Taqi Bahar mentions his name in his political poem, "Jomhoori Nameh" The republic letter. Spying for the British[ edit ] In the fifth Iranian national assembly, Hassan Modarres presented documents showing Dashti's relations with the British government and the mutual support by the British to help him become a congressman.
The documents were published in the "Siasat" newspaper at that time in which the British ambassador was ordering some to financially support Dashti in return for his service.
As a result, Dashti's petition to enter the congress was denied by the majority of congressmen. The book "55"[ edit ] In , Dashti wrote a book titled "The 55", a sympathetic account of the 55 years of the Pahlavi family's reign. The council of Tehran University nominated Dashti for an honorary Doctoral degree. The reviews were polarized. One of his harsher critics, Ehsan Tabari , wrote: In Iran's contemporary history, there are and have been men like, Taghi-zadeh , Doctor Rezazadeh Shafagh and the very Mr.
Ali Dashti, who spent all they ever owned serving the tyrants in return for their personal benefits; or as the poet says "They have enslaved knowledge, freedom, faith and fairness"; or, as in the proverb taken from the Gospel teachings, "spared the pearl for the pigs". When the Iranian revolution occurred two years later, Dashti published a book named "The Fall Factors", a critical analysis of the Pahlavi dynasty exploring the reasons behind its downfall.
Retrieved 25 August The historian Waqedi2 tells a different sort of story about the Prophet's birth: "As soon as he came out of his mother's womb, he said 'God is great'. At one month he crawled, at two months he stood, at three months he walked, at four months he ran, and at nine months he shot arrows.
According to this, as soon as Sayyed Ali was born he uttered the words "Sovereignty belongs to God. This story is an example of myth-making and history fabrication by Moslems. Conversely, certain Western Christian writers were moved by religious bias to describe Mohammad as a liar, impostor, adventurer, power-seeker, and lecher.
Neither group was capable of objective study of the facts. The reason for this is that ideologies, whether political, religious, or sectarian, prevent men and women from using their brains and thinking clearly. Subjects thus become veiled by preconceived notions of good and evil.
Without question the Prophet Mohammad is an outstanding figure. Among the qualities which distinguished him from his fellow men were sharpness of mind, profoundity of thought, and impatience with the illusions and superstitions prevalent in his time.
Send to a friend
Most important of all were the extraordinary will-power and energy which carried him into single combat with evil. In fervent words he warned the people against dishonesty and immorality, reprehended wickedness, untruthfulness, and selfishness, stood up for the deprived and needy lower class, rebuked his compatriots for worshipping stone idols instead of the one great God, and ridiculed the uselessness of the idols.
Naturally those who enjoyed prestige and held positions of strength in the Meccan community took no notice of his words. Acceptance would have required abandonment of customs and beliefs which had been rooted for centuries and, like all inherited ideologies, were supposed to have absolute and incontestable validity.
Although he was of the same tribe, the Qoraysh, he was not of the same rank, being an orphan whom an uncle had compassionately housed and reared. After a childhood spent in tending the camels of his uncle and his neighbours, he had at a quite young age entered the serviceof a wealthy woman, Khadija, and begun to gain some esteem.
Send to a friend
Such a man, seen hitherto as an ordinary Qorayshite tribesman lacking any kind of distinction, suddenly claimed authority to teach and lead on the ground that God had appointed him to be a prophet. The attitude and mentality of the chiefs is illustrated by a reported remark of Walid b. Mas'ud, how can Mohammad claim to be a prophet?
Meccaand Ta'ef! It is We who have apportioned their sustenance among them in the life of the lower world. The powerful Abd Manaf clan of the Qoraysh had split into smaller clans called after Abd Manaf's sons; among these were the clan of Hashem, into which Mohammad was born, and the wealthy clan of Abd Shams and the latter's son Omayya.
The clan mentality is expressed in the reported wordsof Abu Jahl4 the next head of the clan of Makhzum, to Akhnas b. Shariq, a head of another clan: "We were rivals with the Banu Abd Manaffor the ascendancy, and we have caught up with them. So one of them has come out with a claim to be a prophet. This is how the Banu Abd Manaf hope to regain the upper hand over us. They took a negative view because they did not believe either in the existence of one God or in the divine appointment of a man from their own people to teach and guide them.
Significantly the Meccan chiefs paid no attention to the basic issue. They never listened to Mohammad's teachingwith anywillingness to ascertain its truth and assess its compatibility with reason and the good of the community.
In any community, however wicked or immoral, there are a few clear thinking and well-meaning persons ready to accept words of truth, no matter from whose mouth they may come.
Among the men of influence in Meccan society, Abu Bakr must be counted the first to have acknowledged Mohammad's teachings as true. Following his example some other Qorayshite notables, such as Abd of-Rahman b.
Awf, Othman b. Afffm, Zobayr b. Obaydollah, and Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, embraced Islam. At Mecca members of both groups rallied to Mohammad and joined in praise of him and his ideas.
Conflict between the two groups was bound to arise in the Meccan situation. The wealthy, who enjoyed the support of the majority of the people, were proud of their wealth and their money.
The minority supporting Mohammad were convinced of the rightness of their cause, and in order to propagate it, they ascribed special faculties and merits to their leader. The tendency to do this was kept within reasonable bounds during his lifetime but continually gathered strength after his death.
Popular imagination soon dehumanized him and endowed him with the qualities of a son of God, cause of creation, controller of the universe. To show how most of these fantasies came into being and proliferated, an important example will be discussed.
The evidence in this case is clear and incontrovertible. Verse 1of sura 17 ol-Esra , which is one of the Meccan suras, was the source of the belief that the Prophet made a night journey to heaven.
The words of the verse, however, are simple and rationally explicable: "Exalted is He who carried His servant by night from the Mosque of the Sanctuary to the Furthest Mosque, whose precincts We have blessed, so that We might show him some of Our signs. He is all- hearing, all- seeing.
Other instances of spiritual journey by visionary thinkers are known.
In Moslem minds, however, this simple verse is overlaid with wondrous and rationally unacceptable myths. Was their purpose to explain the meaning and the occasion of the revelation of the verse, or to summarize the stories about it circulating among Moslems? In any case, they cite no evidence that the Prophet ever said such things. The authors of the Hadith compilations took great pains to check the transmission of sayings ascribed to the Prophet, though this does not necessarily prove the reliability of the transmitters.
The authors of the Tafsir ol-Jalalayndo not mention any source at all. This suggests that perhaps they did not believe the story which they were telling.
According to it, the Prophet said: "That night Gabriel came, bringing a quadruped bigger than a donkey and smaller than a mule, with outward-facing hoofs on its feet. I mounted it and rode to the House of the Sanctuary. I tied Boraq's the animal's bridle on the ring on which prophets usually tied it. In the Furthest Mosque I lowered my head to the ground three times in prayer.
When I came out, Gabriel brought two vessels to me, one filled with milk and one filled with wine.
I chose the one filled with milk, and Gabriel approved my choice. Then we flew to the first heaven. At the gate of the first heaven a guard asked, 'Who is it? Adam came to meet me and said, 'You are welcome.
In the seventh heaven I saw Abraham reclining in the populous abode into which seventy thousand angels go every day and out of which none ever come. Next Gabriel took me to the last lote tree5 whose leaves were as big as elephant's ears and whose fruits were like. Then a revelation came ordering me to pray fifty times every day and night. On my way back, the Prophet Moses said to me, 'Fifty prayers are too many.
Ask the Lord to reduce them! The Lord granted a reduction to forty prayers. This time Moses said, 'I have tested the matter in my own community. The people cannot pray forty times every day and night. Even the Prophet's modern and generally rational biographer, Mohammad Hosayn Haykal 6 while denying that the night journey was a bodily ascension, presents the mythical account in a modified form taken from a book by Emile Dermenghem 7.
For in the same sura 17, whose first verse gave rise to the myth, the Prophet is told in verse 95 how to answer those who demanded a miracle from him: "Say 'Glory to my Lord! Am I other than a human, a messenger?
Even on the assumption of such a need, why should a winged or air-borne quadruped have been provided? Was the Furthest Mosque on the route to the heavens? Does God, who is omnipotent, have any need for prayers from His worshippers?
Why had not the guards of the heavens been forewarned of the Prophet's journey? Credulous minds relate cause to effect without reference to reality. The Prophet needs a mount because he is going on a long journey; therefore the mount, while resembling a mule, has to possess some sort of wings to enable it to fly like a pigeon.
God wants to dazzle Mohammad with His Majesty and therefore commands Gabriel to show Mohammad the wonders of the heavens. Like a mighty king who orders his officials to collect higher taxes to meet the state's expenses, and whose finance minister warns against impoverishment of the subjects through over-taxation, the Lord demands prayers from the worshippers and His Prophet pleads that fifty prayers are too many. Mohammad's greatness is unquestionable. If the social and political circumstances of his time are taken into account, he has no equal among the initiators of major historical change.
They all had the support of the armed forces and public opinion of their peoples, whereas Mohammad made his way into history with empty hands and in a hostile society. Perhaps Lenin can be rated the most potent man of the present century and compared with Mohammad.
For nearly twenty years , with tireless energy and resourcefulness and with stubborn fidelity to his principles, he thought, wrote, kept remote control over revolutionary activities, and never relaxed , until he established the first communist state in the physically and socially unfavourable environment of Russia.
He certainly overcame huge internal and external obstacles. On the other hand, a revolutionary movement had been developing in Russia for half a century before him, and hundreds of thousands of revolutionaries and malcontents were ready to support him. Another striking difference is that he always lived in poverty or self-chosen austerity.
It is natural and normal that legends about great men should arise after their deaths. After a time their weak points are forgotten and only their strong points are remembered and passed on. The lives of many thinkers and artists were by no means morally irreproachable, but their works survive and are admired.
We do not know how Nasir od-Din Tusi 8 managed to become a minister to the Mongol conqueror Hulagu Khan 9 but even if his expedients were immoral, his scientific writings have made him an honoured son of Iran. No wonder, then, that after the death of a great spiritual leader imaginations should get to work and endow him with a profusion of virtues and merits. The trouble is that this process does not stay within reasonable limits but becomes vulgarized, commercialized, and absurd.
Ali Dashti 23 Years
Even if such events occrured at that time, how could they be effects of the Prophet's birth and how could they be warnings from God? Reason, observation, and mathematics require effects to have causes.
All the world's phenomena, whether physical, social, or political, have causes. Sometimes these seem obvious; sunshine gives warmth and light, fire burns if not obstructed, water flows downward unless it can be pumped upward.
Sometimes they are not obvious and have only been discovered through long effort, such as the causes of thunder and lightning or diseases and cures. Between the birth of a child at Mecca and the extinction of temple-fires in Iran, no relation of cause and effect is possible.
If a crack appeared in the arch at Ctesiphon, it must have been due to subsidence. Yet how could the Iranian king or the Zoroastrian priests have recognised the cracking of the arch and extinction of the fires as indications of the birth of a child who was only to begin his religious mission forty years later?
Why should God, who is wise and understanding, have wanted the Iranians to take heed of Islam forty years before Mohammad was appointed to preach it? If God had wished to signal the extraordinary importance 15 of Mohammad's birth, why did He give no sign to the Meccans? In His omnipotence He could have caused the Ka'ba's roof to fall and its idols to topple, which would have been a stronger warning to the Qorayshites than the extinction of fires in faraway temples.
In any case, why was not the Prophet's appointment accompanied by a miracle which would have convinced all the Qorayshites and spared God's chosen messenger from thirteen years of enmity and persecution?
Why was not a light kindled in the heart of King Khosraw Parviz 11 I to guide him to the true faith and dissuade him from tearing up the Prophet's letter? The Iranians would then have been guided by their king's example, and they would have become Moslems without having to suffer defeat at the battles of Qadesiya and Nehavand. Many years ago, I read the Vie de Jesus of the great French writer Ernest Renan , who has painted a realistic and vivid portrait of the Messiah with masterly skill.
Sometime later, I came across another book, entitled Son of Man, whose painstaking German author, Emil Ludwig, claimed that it is as factual as any book on the subject can be when reliable historical documentation is so scarce. In the present short work, I do not attempt to give a full account of twenty three of the sixty three years of the Prophet Mohammad's life. Without false modesty, I do not see myself as possessing Ernest Renan's talent and sensitivity or Emil Ludwig's patience and capacity for research, all of which qualities would be needed in plenty for adequate portrayal of a man whose spiritual and moral strength changed the course of human history.
My purpose in this short work is to sketch an outline and to dispel a phantom. To be more precise and candid, I admit that part of the impulse to write it came to me from a psychological theory or rather observation.
This is that belief can blunt human reason and common sense. As we all know, ideas which have been inculcated into a person's mind in childhood remain in the background of his or her thinking.
Consequently he or she will want to make facts conform with inculcated ideas which have no rational validity. Even learned scholars, with rare exceptions, are burdened with this handicap and inhibited rrom using their common sense; or if they use it, they only do so when it corroborates their inculcated ideas.
Mankind is gifted with faculties of perception and ratiocination which make solution of scientific problems possible, but in matters of religious and political beliefs ready to trample on the - evidence of reason and even of the senses. He was a fatherless and motherless orphan living in the house of his paternal uncle, Abu Taleb, a man who had a kind heart but little material wealth.
In order that he might be occupied and help to pay for his keep, he was given the task of taking came1Sowned by Abu Taleb and others into the plain to graze. He thus spent his days in the grim desert outside Mecca all alone. He would naturally ask himself why he had come into the world as a fatherless orphan and had so soon lost the young mother to whom alone he could turn for love and caresses. He would wonder too why blind fate had taken away his strong and generous grandfather and sent him for refuge to his uncle's house.
His uncle was a good and kind man, but had a large family and could not afford to give him the care which his cousins and other children of the same rank received.
His other uncles, such as Abbas and Abu Lahab, lived comfortably and ignored him. Thoughts such as these must have rankled in his mind during long years of sorrow and hardship.
In the monotonous solitude of the arid plain, where the camels strained their necks in search of a thorn or a blade of grass among the stones, what else was there to do but grieve and muse?
Misfortune embitters a person and makes him conscious of suffering, especially when he is left to himself with nothing to distract him. It may safely be conjectured that in the course of time this child's thoughts turned to the social system and found in it some of the sources of his unhappiness. The reason why the other boys of his rank and age led pleasant lives was that their fathers had charge of the Ka'ba.
They supplied water, bread, and other requisites to the pilgrims who came to Mecca for the annual ceremonies at the Ka'ba, and they made big profits by selling goods which they imported from Syria dearly and buying produce from pilgrims cheaply. These businesses were the source of their children's well being. Why did so many tribes sustain the wealth and power of the Qoraysh by coming to the Ka'ba?
The reason was that the Ka'ba housed famous idols and contained a black stone which the Arabs held sacred.Would you like to tell us about a lower price? This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. In this letter, Khomeini addressed Montazeri without the title of Ayatollah Montazeri: With a broken heart and great sadness, I write this short letter so that one day the people would know the situation.
Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources.
English Choose a language for shopping. For the Iranian footballer, see Ali Dashti footballer. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. He reiterated this request in and Some of the transmitted reports state that on the second journey he was no longer too young and that he eagerly listened to religious informants. Parda-ye pendar and twice reprinted , on Sufism Iranian-Islamic mysticism.