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AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF BRITAIN PDF

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Twenty-first impression British Libra ry Catalogui ng in Publication Data. McD owall, David. An illustrated history of Britain. 1. Great Britain-History. dovolena-na-lodi.info A N I LLU STRATED - HISTORY OF - BRITAIN David McDowall • Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2/E, England and. An Illustrated History of Britain Within living memory certain annual fairs were associated with hill - Britain in rhe fifth century AD. Britain was.


An Illustrated History Of Britain Pdf

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Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd .. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain (Oxford Un iversity Press ) A. Mackie: A History of Scotland . An Illustrated History of Britain - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. McDowall David. An Illustrated History of Britain. Файл формата pdf; размером 60,37 МБ. Добавлен пользователем lelchikforever, дата добавления.

This mea ns th at th e so uth and east on plain as far as Russia. Africa to Europe. Hand axes made in thi s way ha ve how to make pottery, They probabl y came from been found widely, as far north as Yorkshire and as eithe r th e Iberian Spani sh peninsula or even the far west as Wal es.

North African coast. They were small, dark , and long-headed people , and may be the forefath ers of However, the ice adva nced again and Britain dark-ha ired inhabitants of Wal es and Corn wall became hardly habit able until an other milder today. They settled in th e western parts of Britain period , probably around 50 , BC. Durin g thi s and Ireland, from Cornwa ll at th e southwest end of t ime a new type of human bein g seems ro have Britain all th e way to th e far north.

T hese people looked similar to rhe mode rn These were the first of several waves of invaders British, but were probably sma ller and had a life before th e first arrival of the Roman s in 55 BC. It span of on ly about th irty years.

How- Around 10, BC, as th e Ice A ge drew to a close, eve r, alrho ugh rhey must have brought new ideas Britain was peop led by small groups of hunters, and methods, it is now thought th at th e cha nging gatherers and fis he rs.

Few had settled homes, and pattern of Britain's prehistory was the result of local th ey seemed to have followed herds of deer which econo mic and social forces. By about BC Britain had finally become an island, The great "public works" of th is tim e, which and had also beco me hea vily forested. For the needed a huge organ isat ion of labour, reil us a little wanderer-hunter culture this was a disaster, for [he of how preh istoric Brirain was developin g.

The co ld- loving deer and other an ima ls on which th ey earlier of these works were great "barrows", or lived largely died out. To day th ese upland s have poor soil peopl e crossed th e narrow sea from Europe in sma ll and few trees, but they were not like tha t th en. Each could carry one or two persons. These clea red for farming, and as a result were the most people kept an ima ls and grew corn crops, and kn ew.

Unlike southern sites, where wood was used which hill since rotted, Skara Brae is all stone. Behind the firepillCe bottom left there arestorage shelves against the back wall.

On the riRht is probably a stone sided bed, in which rushes err heather were placed forwarmth. Eventually, and ove r a very long period, the se areas became overfarmed , whi le by BC the climate became drier, and as a result this land co uld no lon ger suppor t man y peop le. It is d ifficult today to imagi ne these areas, part icu larly the uplands of Wiltshire and Dorset , as he avily peop led areas.

Yet the monuments remain. After BC th e cha lkland peopl e started building great circles of earth banks and dit ches. Inside, they built wood en build ings and sto ne circles. These "henges", as they are called, were cen tres of religious, polit ica l and economic power. By far th e most spectac ular, both then and now, was Stonehenge, wh ich was built in separate stages over a period of more than a thousand years.

The precise purposes of Stonehenge remain a mystery, bu t during th e seco nd phase of build ing, after abo ut BC, hu ge blueston es were brough t to th e site from south W ales. This could only have been ach ieved because th e political autho rity of th e area surround ing S tonehe nge was recogni sed over a very large area, indeed probably over the whole of the British Isles.

Borh itemsdistinguisht.. Stonehenge was almost certainly a sort of capital, Neolirh ic Briton s beca use of th eir mil itar y or met al- to which th e chiefs of othe r gro ups came from all work ing skills.

Their infl uence was soo n felt and, as over Britain. C ertain ly, earth or stone hen ges were a result, they became leaders of Brit ish soc iety. They seem to have been co pies of th e th ese peopl e get th eir name: In Ireland the Why did people now dec ide to be buried separately cen tre of preh istoric c ivilisation grew around the River Boyne and at T ara in U lster. The importan ce and give up th e o ld communa l burial barrows?

It is of these place s in folk mem or y far outlasted the di ffi cul t to be ce rtai n, but it is tho ugh t that the old barr ows were built partly to please th e gods of the builders of the monuments. T he Beaker people southeast Britain from Europe. T he y were round- brou ght with th em from Europe a new cerea l, headed and strongly built, taller than Ne o lithic barley , which co uld grow almost anywhe re.

Perh aps Britons. It is not known whether they in vaded by they fel t it was no longer necessary to please th e armed force, or wh ether they were in vit ed by gods of the cha lk upland so il. Maiden Ccsde. Farms like this were established in southeasl Britain of the early lr Age. Ics strength can stiUbe dean ' seen. This may haw been rhe main or even ' building; largt but et'fi'l these forTifications were no defence against round hurs increasingly took the plau of smaller ones.

In men ofCeltic Europe hws were square. T he Bea ker people prob ably spoke an Indo- From thi s time, too, power seems to have shifted to European language. They seem to have broug ht a th e Thames valley and southeas t Brita in. Except for single culture to the who le of Britain. They also short periods, poli t ical and econo mic power has brought skills to make bronze too ls and th ese began remain ed in the southeast ever since.

Hi ll-forts to replace sto ne one s. But th ey acce pte d man y of rep laced henges as the cent res of local power, an d the old ways. Stonehenge remaine d th e most most of these were found in the southeast, important cen tre until BC.

The Beaker suggest ing that the land successfully suppor ted more peop le's richest graves were the re, and they added a peopl e here th an elsewhere. British eastwards. A number of better-designed bronze socie ty continued to be ce ntred on a number of swords have been found in the Thames va lley, hen ges ac ross the co untryside.

Man y of these swords have civilisation seems to have become less important , been found in river beds, almost ce rtain ly thrown and was overtaken by a new form of society in in for religious reason s. This custom may be the southern England, that of a settled farming class. T he new farmers grew wealth y beca use th ey learn ed to enr ich the soil with natural waste mate rials so that it did not beco me poor and The Celts useless. This change probably happened at about Around BC , ano ther grou p of people began to th e same time th at the ch alk uplands were arrive.

Man y of them were tall, and had fair or red becoming drier. Famil y villages and fort ified hair and blue eyes. These were the C elts, who enclosures appeared across the land scape, in lower- prob ably came from central Europe or furthe r eas t, lying areas as well as on th e chalk hill s, and th e o ld from southe rn Russia, and had moved slowly central control of Sto nehenge and th e othe r henges westwards in earlier centuries.

The Cel ts were was lost. They kn ew how to work with 6. T he inc rease of th ese. Toda y The C elt ic tr ibes continued th e same kind of the empty hill -forts stand on lonel y hill tops. But from about ne trade contact with Europe declined. Yet agriculture as th e Bronze Age peop le before th em.! Nearly " 11 of th ese still keep th e names of ca pita ls and sma ller "town s" of th e different tribal the [European] tribes from which the y came.

Th e C el ts were orga nised int o different tribes. T he British today "re often descri bed as Anglo-Saxon. Sco t land and Ireland. The Swnu1ckrum.

The Celts are important in British histor y because they "re th e ances tors of ma ny of the peop le in Highland Scot land. As with previous groups of settlers. Our knowledge of the C elts is sligh t. T he Ce lts began to control "11 th e lowland areas of Britain. It would he better to ca ll them A nglo-Celr. W" les. The insides of th ese hill -forts were fi lled with the coast by peop le who have crossed from houses. It was natural for th em to settle in th e However.

At first most of C elt ic Britain seems to have developed in a gen erally similar way. The Iberian peop le of W" ]es and C ornwall rook on the new Cel tic culture. The hill -fort remain ed th e centre for local groups. Ar any rate. They co n tinued to arrive in one wave after anot her over the nex t seve n hundred years. It is possible th at th ey drove many of the o lder inh abitants westwards into W" les.

Cel tic languages. T he British C elts were giving the m food. Roman writers probably importan t for political and social contact comme nted on the courage and strength of women between th e tribes.

Rornan word for the Much trade. She had beco me queen of her annual Septe mber fair on the site of a Dorset hill. It is no acc ident tha t The Romans the presen t-day cap ita ls of England and Sco tla nd The name "Brita in" comes from the word stand on or near these two ancient trade ce ntres. We kn ow dress came to be valued and the toga [the Roman littl e of their kind of worship except th at at times it cloak] came into fash ion.

It is anot he r reason.. The C elts used cattle to pull their possible that the Sco tt ish tarta n and dress ploughs and th is meant that rich er. There was str iped or chec ked cloaks fastened by a pin. In AD 6 1 she led her tribe against the Bur Latin Britain two of th e largest tribes were ruled by co mpletely disappea red both in its spoken and wome n who fought from their cha riots.

The two ma in trade equa lity betwee n the sexes among the richer C elts. Th e written word was important could not read or write. For money the C elts the word and called th e island " Brita nnia".

She nearly dro ve the m from Britain. Trade with Ireland went in battl e. Und er the Celts Britain had also "very careful about cleanl iness and neatness". T he Romans mispronounced co nducted by river and sea. The Dru ids from different trib es all ove r the liberal art s. An Illustrated History of Britain W ithin living memory ce rtain annual fairs were powerful C elt to stand up to the Romans was a associa ted with hill -forts.

They had no who used to reject Latin began to use it in speec h temples. These Druids writing to Britain. She was tall. The C elts were could be farmed. Further the wearing of our national certain hills. T he most written forms when th e A nglo-Saxons in vaded 8.

T he Roman s cou ld make use of Brit ish T he Ce ltic tribes were ruled ove r by a warrior class. It now exported co rn and an ima ls. For example. As early as AD W hen the Romans invaded the co unt ry almost certa in ly used Latin. They had little difficulty. I The foundation stones Britain in rhe fifth century AD. Winch ester. Each of kind. Saxon s and Frank s. T he later roads broke up. Beyond were the upland estab lished by Roman cha rter. Boadicea's revolt.

These roads contin ued to be Roman legions found it more and more difficult to used long after the Roman s left. They were connected by roads empir e began to collapse.

W hen Brita in called to Rome for he lp Romans were de termined to conquer the whole against the raiders from Saxon G erma ny in th e island. Britain was probably Germanic groups. T hese were the areas. Lei- cester. Emperor Hadrian who planned it. England ones. At century trying to do so. These towns were built point of balance had been found. The third Britain th at later becam e kn own as Wales.

The following year Rome itself fell to a Roman army actu ally occupied Britain. T his part of Brita in town in Roman Britain. The raiders. Efforts to part of many town name s to this day with th e change it in later centuries did no t succeed. Hadrian's wall was simply intended to keep out The Romans left about twenty large towns of about raiders from the north.

Man y of thes e towns were at first army camps. At the time. In A D Rome pulled its last again until the fifteenth century. At first about G loucester. Broad ly. The first signs were th e which were so well built that th ey survived when attacks by C elts of C aled onia in AD Six of the se Roman same was happen ing on the European mainland as roads met in London. So me build ings had Roman co nt rol of Britain came to an end as the central heating. The Romans co nsidered the Celts as war-mad.

The main roads of modern Brita in. But it also marked the 5. The total Roman army in Britain was the C eltic popu lat ion in the countryside. At last they bu ilt a strong fi rst man y of the se were no more than earthworks. A natural and many others besides. Irish The most obvious cha racteristic of Roman Britain and Wel sh today. Lancaster because on either side of the border an invadin g army found its supply line overstre tched. The new wave O utside the towns.

There was a grow ing difference betwee n the rich and those who did the actual work on th e land. T hese. Half the ent ire populatio n died between the ages of twenty and forty. JW AD shuu's txJl. The vill as were usually close to tow ns so th at the crops co uld be sold easily. These belonged fa rh e richer Brito ns who were.

Probably it northern Europe. A n Illustrated History of Britain The reconslrw.: London was twice the size of Paris. Each villa had many workers. The bodies buried in a Roman graveyard at York show tha t life expectancy was low.

Roman occ upation was the growth of large farms. In some ways life in Roman Britain seems ve ry c ivilised. The newcom ers were warlike and o l 00 km illiterate. Ti g Tu esday. Severn and Avon. New into the lowlands of th e country which became place-names appeared on th e map. Days of the week were na med afte r Co rnwa ll. Frei Friday. Thor T hursday.

The Anglo-Saxon migrati on s gave the larger part of Britain its new name. York three hundred yea rs later. The invaders T he wealth of Brita in by th e fourth cen tury The [utes settle d ma inly in Kent and along "". Angles and. H is sto ry of eve nts in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People has been proved generally corr ect by archaeological. T he A ngles settled in the east. In the north.

We owe our knowledge of thi s period Whilby mainly to an English monk named Bede. Wod in Saxon lords. The first of Some C elts stayed behind. Hardl y anyth ing from Ge rmany as well as th ey co uld. Finally most were driv en into Lond on and Leeds. Some C elts were driven into even today. Even today. He was powerful eno ugh to employ thou- Ang lo-Saxon technology cha nged the shape of sands of men to build a huge dyke. It shows how greal uere the distances cOt"eTed by international trade at this time.

W ithout its support th e kin g's own author ity was in dan ger. O ne of Kingston is a frequent place-na me. Offa was mort' powerful than any of the other Anglo-Saxon kings of his nme or a group of advisers on the affairs of state. Ham means farm. But he kn ew that it of Northu mbria. English agricu lture. Wessex W est Saxons. Norman one. He had good reason to In time his name became sho rtened to "sheriff".

Essex East Sa xons. Merc ia and We ssex. But it requ ired six or eight the next king had to work hard ro rebu ild these o xen to pull it. The England. Because th e The Saxons created institution s wh ich made the A nglo-Saxon kin gs ofte n esta blished sett lements.

T h is plough could turn co rners easily. The Saxons div ided th e lan d into new admin is- Right: A gold coin of King Offa. Anglo-Saxons introduced a far heavier plough T he power of Mercia did not survive after O ffa's which was better able to plough in long straigh t death. The C elts had kept small. Birmingha m. T his personal feelings of loyalty. In order to make the best use of An Illustrated H istory of Brirain these sho w that the ea rliest Saxon villages.

It was part icularly useful for the person al loyalty of h is followers. By the midd le of the not at all democrat ic. It was East Anglia East Angles. Nottingham or Southampton. The Saxon kin gs began to replace loyalty meant folk or family.

For the W itan's most powerful. King Offa of Mercia In th e counties were reorganised. Over eac h shire was ap- kings. The ending -ing cha nging. These AD T he W itan probab ly grew out of inform al kin gdoms. English state strong for the next years. But altho ugh he was th e most plough they used. Most peop le still heavier plough led to changes in land owne rsh ip believed. Aft er his death cu lt ivating heavier soils.

Arab-type gold coins were more years. A t that time. By th e tenth centu ry the Witan Middlesex probably a kingdom of Midd le Saxons. Most of it is in Arabic. The W itan established a system wh ich remained an importan t part of th e kin g's method of govern ment. Hi5 coins were of a higher quality than any coins used since the departureof the Romans four hundred years earlier.

Both words. The pit may Mve been officials. It was the beginning of a cl ass village land. O n e other important class de veloped long th in str ips. Recomtrucrion of an Anglo-Sa: T his A nglo- Britain. It was th e begin n ing of th e man or ial syste m wh ich reached its fullest development un der th e Normans. The C onsran t ine in the early fourt h ce n tury AD. In th e Ce ltic areas It needs on ly a moment's thought to recog n ise th at C h rist ian ity co ntin ued to spread.

The Saxons ser tled previou sly un fanned areas. Few in dividual fam ilies cou ld afford to keep a team of oxe n. They A ugustine. The UIOTd "lord" means "loaf u. In th e th ird area would be left to rest for a year. In eac h distri ct was a "man or" or large house. C elts into the west and n orth. Each house had prob. T hi s was a simple bui lding wh ere local villagers ca me to pay taxes.

A s a result. Plough ing these long th in strips was easier because it avo ided Christianity: But by th e begin n ing of th e el eventh used for storage. We ca n no t kno w how or wh en C h ristia n ity first reach ed Britain. The lord of the man or h ad to organ ise all th is.

T he map of W ales sho ws a num be r of the sens ible man agement of village land sha red out place-names beginning or end ing with llan. T hese were then div ided aga in in to on th e lan d. He d id so beca use the king's wife came from In r ope G regory the G rea t sen t a monk. Each family had a number of str ips during th e Saxon period.

Ireland and Sco tla nd. Severa l ruling families in probably have a son to whom he wou ld wish to pass England accept ed C hristian ity. C h rist ian ceremony led by a bishop. In at the Synod meet ing of W h itby the king of Northumbria decided to support the Roman C hurch.

By only Sussex and th e Isle of W ight had not accepted th e new faith. In spite of the difference s between Anglo-Saxon s and Ce lts. It was good and that meant brin ging rulers to th e new faith. It flies in al one door. In Europe and was already C hristian. Celt ic and Roman. T he C elt ic C h urch retreat ed as Rome extended its authority ove r all Christians.

The two C hrist ian C hurches. Kings had "God's in from the storms of rain and snowourside. England had become C hrist ian very quickly. Bede wrote hou. O ne was most interested in the hearts of ordinary people. The There were other ways in which th e C hurch Celtic bishops went out from their mon asteries of increased th e power of th e English state.

Bishops LiTll: It Wales. Ami so when h is group of monk s made little progress with th e King Offa arranged for his son to be crow ned as his ordina ry people. Saxon kin gs helped th e C hurch to grow. But A ugustine and thi s en larged kingdom when he died. In hi: T wen ty years lat er. The bishops from the Roma n C hurch lived at th e cou rts of the kin gs. Th e competition between the Cel tic and Roman C hu rches reached a crisis because they disagreed over th e date of Easter. In the: English teache rs returned to the lands from which th e An glo-Saxon s had co me.

A n eldest son did not automa tically teUs U! It was the Celtic C hurch which brought C hristianity to the ord ina ry peop le of Britain. A ugust ine addit ion. An Illustrated Histo ry of Britain to village teaching C hristian ity. This was partl y beca use Au gustin e successor. They were invited by English rulers who wished to benefit from closer C hurch an d eco no mic co ntact with Europe.

Anglo-Saxon England becam e well kn own in Europe for its exports of woollen goods. These mona ste ries tra ine d the men who could read and write. By 8 75 o nly King A lfred in the west of Wessex held out against the Vikings.

He was strong who had been given lan d by the kin g. He churches and monasteries along the east. He used the Iirerare men of rhe C hu rch to came from Norway and Denmark.

The power of lan dlords. Like th e A ngle - help esrablish a system of law. By the eleventh cent ury to co nquer and to set tle. Afte r some serious who cou ld read and write. Many bishops and monks in England were from the Franki sh land s France and G ermany and elsewhere.

In addit ion they all used Lat in. They burnt people and to write down important matters. London was itself important source. This time they came a large number of matte rs. History of the English People. The Vikings q uickly royal author ity probab ly went wider an d deeper in acce pted C hrist ian ity and did not disturb the local England tha n in any o the r European co untry.

These were the Th e king who made most use of the C hurch was Vikings. TheViking invasions and the areas they broughr under their control. Increased literacy itself helped trade. In this way close co ntact with man y parts of Europe was encouraged.

It imported wine. Peasant s. Villages and tow ns grew around the mon asteries and inc reased local trade. Most of these bishops and mon ks seem to have come from churches or mon asteries along Europe 's vital trade routes. Eth elrcd. Durin g his th at the royal counc il. T hey had soon become landlord to r ay Dan cgcld.

These were called better than rule by no one at all. They became prosperous market tow ns.. Rule by a Dan ish king was far set tleme nts to keep the m out. The05eberg Viking 5hip. Ch urch building had been going on for ove r a century.

T he effects of this tax were most from the nort h. In the rest of th e England. It was called the Danc law. T hey were the ch ildre n and heavily felt by the ordina ry villagers.

Although thi5 particular 5hip U' l5 probably only wed along rite COc1n. But soon church. When an exact copy of 5imilar 5hip was used to CT rite A flantic to America in In fact Westlllin ster Abbey was r ay the Vikings to stay away. By the time Edwa rd died th ere was a church in almost eve ry village. Edward star ted a new afterwards the Dan ish Vikings started raidin g church flt for Cl king at Westmin ster.

T he the word. U' l5 21 metres long and. T o find the mon ey he a Norman. The pattern of By England seemed rich and peaceful again th e English village. C nut died in burghs. He becam e kin g for th e simple reason co untry Alfr ed was recognised as king. It was the beginn ing of a regular mot he r was a daughter of the duke of No rma ndy.

The Saxon kin g. He had no royal men who h. His first claim was W illiam marched to London. H arold had already was sma ll. Wi ll iam had two de feat ed and ki lled in ba ttl e n ear Hastings. Harold was faced by two dan ger s. Haro id migh t h ave won.

His men were tired. Harol d di d not de ny th is second claim. They ma rched south as fast as possib le.

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But h e was by Duke W ill iam of N or mandy. But they wer e st ill we ll known for the ir he was not tied by it. He tho ugh t he could beat the m wi th th e sho wn his bravery and abil ity. No soone r had he defeated the m tha n many Normans to h is English court from France. In should follow h im as king was o ne of the most H aro ld had to march north into Yorksh ire to defeat important in English history.

It was Haro ld dec ided not to wa it for th e wh ole Saxon a Godwi nson. Th e in whe n he bega n to burn villages o utside the c ity. T he Danish V iki ngs h ad no t without an obvious heir. Har old. Th e question of who given up th eir claim to the Eng lish th rone. A new pe riod had begun. H arol d. If he Harold's right to the English throne was challe nged h ad waited. Edward had brought the Danes. These C elts. Ireland and Sco tland are also important.

Like man y ot he r We lsh rulers. Life was no less th an thirty-five W elsh rulers died violently. It on ly grew to ove r an unusual event. These men must have Gruffvdd was killed by a cymr y while defending' been tribal ch iefs to begin with.

T he ordinary people ran away in to the hills and woods Because Wa les is a mountainous country.

Each of these kin gs tr ied ro conquer th e loyalty to Edward th e C onfessor. T hey were kept Wales and its Celric kingdoms. Wales By th e eight h century most of the C elt s had been driven int o the W elsh peninsula. O ne by on e in each group a strong fight ing his ene mies. T he rest of th e lan d was rocky and too poor for an yth ing Life was dang erous. But the stor ies of Wa les. Wa les. The experience of th e Welsh. In except keepin g an imals. It was popu lation remain ed small.

For thi s reason th e th e king of G lamorga n died of old age. Slavery was com mon. Irish and Scots helps to explain the feel ing they have toda y. T hey travelled coun trymen". H e was also the last.

Welsh h igh kin g strong eno ugh to rule over all Soc iety was based on family groupings. Wel sh kin gs after him to beco me overlords ove r neigh bouring family were able to rule on ly after the y had promised groups. Until recently few histori an s looked at British history exce pt from an Eng lish point of view. The idea was that th e strongest man sho uld lead. But ir is also true th at th e five kingdoms were often at war. TARA se at of the high k ings of Ireland Tht' rtJlHkl w U 't.

C hristianit y brought wriring. Christian ity came to Ireland in abo ut A D Connaugh t in the west. Mun srer in th e sourhwest. As in Wales. Leinster in the southeast. In fact th e system led to co nt inuous cha llenges. T he message of Chri st ianity was spread in Irelan d by a British slave. This design may well haw be!. Thi s period is ofte n ca lled Irelan d's "golden age". O urside th eir tr ibe they had no protect ion and no name of th eir own.

The kings in thi s tribal society were chosen by electi on. The beginnin g of Ireland 's history date s from th at time. C hristian mon asteries grew up. Invaders were unknown and culture flowered. They had only the na me of th eir trib e. Five kingdoms grew up in Ireland: Ul ster in the north. Ireland's Celtic kingdoms. It was a land of monasteries and had a flourishing C elt ic culture.

The main group. The Vikings. Just over a century later ano the r king of Lein ster in vited th e Norrnans of T he non -Picrish inh abitant s were mainl y Sco ts.

T he name of th eir kingdom. In th e Pict ish and Sco tt ish kin gdoms were uni ted under a Sco tt ish king. Ver y little was left except th e stone memorials th at th e Vikings could not carry away. The present cathedral was buil! For the C elts. He is st ill people.

T hey spoke C elt ic as well to create one single Ireland.

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T hey had probably given welcoming and easy to farm. Viking raids forced the Irish to un ite. T o the east Briti sh world.

Sco tla nd was pop ulated by four separate groups of whil e Ireland was ruled by Btian Boru. No rth of the up their old tr ibal way of life bv the sixth cen tury. In the centre of Scotland The third group were the Britons. As an effecti ve meth od of rule the h igh kingship of Ireland lasted on ly twelve years. Scotland has two Picti sh rules of kin gship. So uth and east of th is line society was more easily influen ced by the cha nges Un ity between Piers.

He tried the nor th and no rtheast. Sco ts and Briton s was taking place in England. An Illustrated History of Britai n This "golden age" sudden ly ended with th e arrival of Viking raiders. In Irelan d chose its fi rst high kin g. O ne because th ey inh erited theit rights. Th is T he Scots were C eltic settle rs who had started to gave the Nor mans the excuse th ey wanted to move into the western Highl an ds from Ireland in en large their kin gdom.

Viking trade led to the first towns and ports. England to hel p him against his high kin g.

Th e sense of common culture may have been increased by marri age alliances betwee n tribes. It was easy for a clan chief or they soon began to accept author ity from people nob le to throw off th e rule of th e king. T ravel was often impossible in wint er. Sco ts and Briton s had all from its capital. Th is increased the ir feeling of difference from th e Celtic tr ibal H ighlanders furthe r north.

She tla nd. These an imals were owned by the tribe as th em politically. He even. Slowly economic system increased the ir feeling of the ea rls of O rkney and othe r areas found it easier belonging to th e same kind of soc iety and th e to accept the king of Sco ts as the ir ovetlord. But tribes. W he n they co uld no t push th em out of Th eir economy main ly depended on keeping th e islan ds and coastal areas.

England was obviously unite th e people. In order to resist them. The fi rst C hristian mission to stro nger th an Sco tland but. Vikings attacked the coas ta l areas of Sco tla nd. A nyone looking at a been brought closer togethe r by C hristianity. Th is However. The Scots dec ided to seek the friendship of the English. This was partl y due to A ltho ugh they kep t some animals.

By the time of th e Synod of Sco tland rem ain ed a difficult country to rule even Whi tby in The co mmon commun icat ions with No rway were difficult. The A ngles were very different from the Celts. At first the Vikings. In the tribes of Sco tland.

This system encouraged th e A ngles of Sco tland to devel op a non -tribal system of cont rol. T he Sco ts hoped "Dove of the C h urch". Piers Had rian 's Wall and Sco ts fough t together against the ene my raiders common Celt ic culture. Scotlan d had co me to southwest Scotla nd in about bot h th e north of England and Sco tla nd were AD At house was left standing.

Thomas Bt"ckt't. The Church controlled mone:. It was a as a reward to his captains. Of all the farmland of England he gave ha lf to the Few Saxon lords kept the ir lan ds and th ose who did Norman nobles. Between Durh am and York not a single troublesome borde rs with Wales and Scotland.

Willi am fought back. In England. This meant th at th ey true army of occupation for at least twenty years. Ov er 4. Wi lliam gave parts of it cont rol. In their fear th ey set fire to nearby houses and rhe coronation ce remony ended in disorder. A ll the o thers lost she riffs. Although Will iam was now crowned king. For the W itan's autho rity was based on its right to choose kings.

Most peop le still believed. He was powerful eno ugh to employ thousands of men to build a huge dyke. King Offa of Mercia The Saxon kin gs began to replace loyalty to family with loyalty to lord and kin g. Ang lo-Saxon technology cha nged the shape of English agricu lture.

T he Anglo-Saxons established a number of kin gdoms. The ending -ing meant folk or family. Arab-type gold coins were more tnLSted than any others. Merc ia and We ssex. In time his name became sho rtened to "sheriff". These sh ires. Nottingham or Southampton. It was not at all democrat ic. But he kn ew that it might be dangerous to do so. Birmingha m. T he W itan probab ly grew out of inform al group s of sen ior warriors and churchmen to who m kings like O ffa had turned fo r advice or support on difficult matters.

T his heavier plough led to changes in land owne rsh ip and organ isation. A s a result. He went to Cante rbury. O ne of these fields would be used for planting spring crops. T hese were then div ided aga in in to long th in str ips.

Each house had prob. Both words. A ugustine. Plough ing these long th in strips was easier because it avo ided the prob lem of tu rn ing. O n e other important class de veloped during th e Saxon period. The Saxons ser tled previou sly un fanned areas. In th e last hundred years of Rom an govern me n t C h ristian ity became firmly esta blish ed across Britain.

It was th e begin n ing of th e man or ial syste m wh ich reached its fullest development un der th e Normans. The lord of the man or h ad to organ ise all th is. It needs on ly a moment's thought to recog n ise th at the fair di visio n of land an d of team s of oxe n.

In eac h distri ct was a "man or" or large house. It was the beginning of a cl ass syste m. The th ird area would be left to rest for a year. But by th e begin n ing of th e el eventh ce n tury th ey were warlords. The UIOTd "lord" means "loaf u. They cut down many foresred areas in valleys to farm the richer lowla nd so il.

The pit may Mve been Recomtrucrion of an Anglo-Sa: He d id so beca use the king's wife came from T his A ngloSaxon patte rn. Few in dividual fam ilies cou ld afford to keep a team of oxe n. T hi s was a simple bui lding wh ere local villagers ca me to pay taxes.

In r ope G regory the G rea t sen t a monk. T he map of W ales sho ws a num be r of place-names beginning or end ing with llan. Each family had a number of str ips in eac h of these fields.

In th e Ce ltic areas C h rist ian ity co ntin ued to spread. It flies in al one door. There were other ways in which th e C hurch increased th e power of th e English state. It was the Celtic C hurch which brought C hristianity to the ord ina ry peop le of Britain. O ne was most interested in the hearts of ordinary people. Bede wrote hou. In hi: T he C elt ic C h urch retreat ed as Rome extended its authority ove r all Christians.

It was good political propagand a. England had become C hrist ian very quickly. Kings had "God's approval ". The bishops from the Roma n C hurch lived at th e cou rts of the kin gs. The Celtic bishops went out from their mon asteries of Wales.

In addit ion. A ugust ine becam e th e first A rchb ishop of Canterbury in 60 I. Th e competition between the Cel tic and Roman C hu rches reached a crisis because they disagreed over th e date of Easter. The opening page of St Luke's Gospel. Bishops gave kin gs the ir support.

A n eldest son did not automa tically beco me king. T wen ty years lat er. He was very successful. An Illustrated Histo ry of Britain to village teaching C hristian ity. It established mon asteries.

T he value of C hurch approval was all th e greater because of th e un cer tainty of th e roya l succession. Severa l ruling families in England accept ed C hristian ity. In at the Synod meet ing of W h itby the king of Northumbria decided to support the Roman C hurch. This was partl y beca use Au gustin e was interested in estab lish ing C hr istia n authority. Ireland and Sco tla nd. Ami so when King Offa arranged for his son to be crow ned as his successor.

An Illustrated History Of Britain

The two C hrist ian C hurches. In spite of the difference s between Anglo-Saxon s and Ce lts. Europe and was already C hristian. But A ugustine and h is group of monk s made little progress with th e ordina ry people.

By only Sussex and th e Isle of W ight had not accepted th e new faith. English teache rs returned to the lands from which th e An glo-Saxon s had co me. Celt ic and Roman. In the: By 8 75 o nly King A lfred in the west of Wessex held out against the Vikings. They were invited by English rulers who wished to benefit from closer C hurch an d eco no mic co ntact with Europe.

Like th e A ngle Saxons th ey only raided at first. These were the Vikings. Most of these bishops and mon ks seem to have come from churches or mon asteries along Europe 's vital trade routes. They burnt churches and monasteries along the east.

Peasant s. The Vikings q uickly acce pted C hrist ian ity and did not disturb the local populat ion. London was itself raided in During the next hundred years. In this way close co ntact with man y parts of Europe was encouraged.

Villages and tow ns grew around the mon asteries and inc reased local trade. The Vikings Towards th e end of th e eigh th cent ury new raider s were tempted by Britain 's wealth. He started th e A nglo-Saxon Chronicle. The power of lan dlords. In th e Vikings in vaded Britain once it was clear th at th e quarrelling A ng lo-Saxo n kingdoms could not keep th em o ut.

It imported wine. He was strong eno ugh to make a treat y with the Vikings. This time they came to co nquer and to set tle. Anglo-Saxon England becam e well kn own in Europe for its exports of woollen goods.

Th e king who made most use of the C hurch was A lfred. By the eleventh cent ury royal author ity probab ly went wider an d deeper in England tha n in any o the r European co untry. He used the Iirerare men of rhe C hu rch to help esrablish a system of law. These mona ste ries tra ine d the men who could read and write. Afte r some serious defeat s A lfred won a dec isive battle in In addit ion they all used Lat in. Many bishops and monks in England were from the Franki sh land s France and G ermany and elsewhere.

Increased literacy itself helped trade. In fact Westlllin ster Abbey was a Norman. When an exact copy of 5imilar 5hip was used to CT rite A flantic to America in It was the beginn ing of a regular tax system of the people whic h would prov ide the mo ney for armies.

As thei r name suggests. When Erhelred died C nu t or Ca nure. Durin g his struggle against the Dane s. The Saxon kin g. By the time Edwa rd died th ere was a church in almost eve ry village. T he effects of this tax were most heavily felt by the ordina ry villagers. They became prosperous market tow ns. Ch urch building had been going on for ove r a century. T o find the mon ey he set a tax on all his peop le.

Edward star ted a new church flt for Cl king at Westmin ster. Rule by a Dan ish king was far better than rule by no one at all. Eth elrcd. The05eberg Viking 5hip. But soon afterwards the Dan ish Vikings started raidin g westward s. He becam e kin g for th e simple reason th at the royal counc il. These were called burghs. T hey had soon become Who should be king? By England seemed rich and peaceful again after the troub les of the Viking inva sion. Although thi5 particular 5hip U' l5 probably only wed along rite COc1n.

The pattern of th e English village. U' l5 21 metres long and carried about 35 men. T hey were the ch ildre n and grandchi ldren of Vik ings who had captured. It was called the Danc law. T he Witan chose Edward. In the rest of th e co untry Alfr ed was recognised as king.

C nut died in Edward had brought many Normans to h is English court from France. If he h ad waited. But they wer e st ill we ll known for the ir figh ti ng skills. W illiam marched to London. T he Danish V iki ngs h ad no t given up th eir claim to the Eng lish th rone. No soone r had he defeated the m tha n he learn t tha t Wi lliam h ad lan ded in Eng land with an army.

Harold's right to the English throne was challe nged by Duke W ill iam of N or mandy. Harold was faced by two dan ger s. These Norrnans were not liked by the more powe rful Saxon nohles. Th e secon d cl aim was that Harold. He had no royal blood. He tho ugh t he could beat the m wi th th e men who h. Th e question of who should follow h im as king was o ne of the most important in English history. But h e was de feat ed and ki lled in ba ttl e n ear Hastings. H arold had already sho wn his bravery and abil ity.

Haro id migh t h ave won. They ma rched south as fast as possib le. H arol d. Howe ver. Wi ll iam had two claims to the English throne. Harol d di d not de ny th is second claim. It was a Godwi nson. Edward on ly lived unt il 6. A new pe riod had begun.

His men were tired.. His first claim was that King Edward had promi sed it to hi m. Har old. Haro ld dec ided not to wa it for th e wh ole Saxon army.

In H aro ld had to march north into Yorksh ire to defeat the Danes. For thi s reason th e popu lation remain ed small.

The early kin gs trave lled around th eir kin gdoms to rem ind the peop le of the ir co ntrol. H e was also the last. Soc iety was based on family groupings. T hey were kept out of England by Offa's Dyke. Wa les. Until recently few histori an s looked at British history exce pt from an Eng lish point of view. The experience of th e Welsh. Each of these kin gs tr ied ro conquer th e othe rs. Slavery was com mon. T hey travelled with th eir hungry followers and soldiers.

These C elts. T he ordinary people ran away in to the hills and woods whe n the king's men approac hed th eir village.

The story of an indepen dent and uni ted Wa les was over almos t as soo n as it had begun. These men must have been tribal ch iefs to begin with. T he rest of th e lan d was rocky and too poor for an yth ing except keepin g an imals. Like man y ot he r We lsh rulers. O ne by on e in each group a strong leader made h imself kin g. Life was hard and so was the behaviour of the people.

Life was dang erous. In th e king of G lamorga n died of old age. Gruffvdd was killed by a cymr y while defending' Wales against the Saxo ns. In G ruffydd ap son of L1ewelyn was th e first Welsh h igh kin g strong eno ugh to rule over all Wales. Ireland and Sco tland are also important.

Wel sh kin gs after him were able to rule on ly after the y had promised loyalty to Edward th e C onfessor. Irish and Scots helps to explain the feel ing they have toda y. Because Wa les is a mountainous country. It was an unusual event.

But the stor ies of Wa les. Wales and its Celric kingdoms. It on ly grew to ove r half a million in th e eigh teent h cen tury. T he message of Chri st ianity was spread in Irelan d by a British slave. Ireland's Celtic kingdoms. As in Wales. The idea was that th e strongest man sho uld lead. C hristian mon asteries grew up. Invaders were unknown and culture flowered. They had only the na me of th eir trib e. Christian ity came to Ireland in abo ut A D Connaugh t in the west.

Leinster in the southeast. Thi s period is ofte n ca lled Irelan d's "golden age". But ir is also true th at th e five kingdoms were often at war. C hristianit y brought wriring.

In fact th e system led to co nt inuous cha llenges. The kings in thi s tribal society were chosen by electi on. Mun srer in th e sourhwest. The beginnin g of Ireland 's history date s from th at time. It was a land of monasteries and had a flourishing C elt ic culture. Five kingdoms grew up in Ireland: Ul ster in the north. O urside th eir tr ibe they had no protect ion and no name of th eir own.

This design may well haw be!. Viking raids forced the Irish to un ite. T o the east and to the south the lowland hill s are gen tle r. Brian Boru d ied in battle against the Vikings. T he Piers were differe nt from the C elts because th ey inh erited theit rights. T he y all sha red a Scotland As a result of its geography. St rathclyde. In Irelan d chose its fi rst high kin g.

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The third group were the Britons. Sco ts and Briton s was achieved for seve ral reason s. T he Scots were C eltic settle rs who had started to move into the western Highl an ds from Ireland in the fourth cent ury. T hey spoke C elt ic as well as anothe r. Viking trade led to the first towns and ports.

For the C elts. Ireland 's futur e capital. The main group. He is st ill looked back on as Ireland 's greatest ruler. Ver y little was left except th e stone memorials th at th e Vikings could not carry away. Th is gave the Nor mans the excuse th ey wanted to en large their kin gdom.

The present cathedral was buil! He tried to create one single Ireland. In th e Pict ish and Sco tt ish kin gdoms were uni ted under a Sco tt ish king. Un ity between Piers. T he non -Picrish inh abitant s were mainl y Sco ts. The Vikings. An Illustrated History of Britai n This "golden age" sudden ly ended with th e arrival of Viking raiders.

So uth and east of th is line society was more easily influen ced by the cha nges taking place in England. As an effecti ve meth od of rule the h igh kingship of Ireland lasted on ly twelve years. Just over a century later ano the r king of Lein ster in vited th e Norrnans of England to hel p him against his high kin g. O ne of the fi ve Irish kin gs. No rth of the "Highlan d Line". Sco tla nd was pop ulated by four separate groups of people. T he name of th eir kingdom.

In the centre of Scotland mountain s stre tc h to the far north and across to the west. T hey had probably given up their old tr ibal way of life bv the sixth cen tury. Scotland has two different soc iet ies. In th e Scots were seriously defeated by a W essex anny pushing northwards. Sco ts and Briton s had all been brought closer togethe r by C hristianity.

This system encouraged th e A ngles of Sco tland to devel op a non -tribal system of cont rol. The Scots dec ided to seek the friendship of the English. The A ngles were very different from the Celts. It was easy for a clan chief or nob le to throw off th e rule of th e king. At first the Vikings. Had rian 's Wall common Celt ic culture. These an imals were owned by the tribe as a who le. Vikings attacked the coas ta l areas of Sco tla nd. T ravel was often impossible in wint er. T hey had arrived in Brita in in family groups.

Th is idea of co mmon landholdin g remained strong unt il the tribes of Sco tland. Piers and Sco ts fough t together against the ene my raiders and set tle rs. This was partl y due to A ltho ugh they kep t some animals. In order to resist them.

England was obviously stro nger th an Sco tland but. She tla nd. W he n they co uld no t push th em out of th e islan ds and coastal areas. A nyone looking at a map of Sco tla nd can immediate ly see that control of the H ighlan ds and islands was a great prob lem. T he Sco ts hoped that if th ey were reason ably peaceful th e Sassenac hs.

Th eir economy main ly depended on keeping animals. T h is mean t that land was held by indi vidual people. Land was distr ibuted for farmin g by the local lord. The spread of Celtic C hrist ian ity also helped to unite th e people. Slowly the ea rls of O rkney and othe r areas found it easier to accept the king of Sco ts as the ir ovetlord. He even. Through his work both Highl and Sco ts and Picts were brought to C hristian ity.

The co mmon economic system increased the ir feeling of belonging to th e same kind of soc iety and th e feeling of differen ce from the agricultural Lowlands. Th e sense of common culture may have been increased by marri age alliances betwee n tribes.

By the time of th e Synod of Whi tby in But commun icat ions with No rway were difficult. Th is increased the ir feeling of difference from th e Celtic tr ibal H ighlanders furthe r north. Sco tland rem ain ed a difficult country to rule even from its capital.

As a resl. The small Norman army march ed from village to village. Although Will iam was now crowned king. Thomas Bt"ckt't. Willi am gave th e Saxon land s to his Norman nobles. He kept th e Saxon system of she riffs. A ll the o thers lost everything. Willi am on ly gave some of his nobles larger esta tes along th e troublesome borde rs with Wales and Scotland.

William organ ised his English kin gdom according to the feudal system which had already begun to de velop in England before his arrival. Feudalism W illiam was careful in the way he gave land to his nobles. Between Durh am and York not a single house was left standing.

Becket died because he [rit. As a result England was different from the rest of Europe because it had one powerful fam ily. A fter eac h English rebellion there was more land to give away. T he re was an A ngloSaxon rebellion again st th e No rrnans every year unt il This meant th at th ey held separate small pieces of land in different parts of th e co unt ry so th at no noble co uld easily or quickly gathe r his fightin g men to rebel. Few Saxon lords kept the ir lan ds and th ose who did were the very sma ll num ber who had acce pted William immed iately.

In England. At the same t ime he kept en ough land for him self to make sure he was much stronger than his nobles. Wi lliam gave parts of it as a reward to his captains. The Church controlled mone:. Ov er 4. W he n the peop le shouted "God Save th e King" the nervous Norman guards at W estminster Abbey rhought th ey were going to attack William.

It was a true army of occupation for at least twenty years. Of all the farmland of England he gave ha lf to the Norman nobles. The word 23 The north was parti cu larly hard to control. When the Saxons fought back. His army included Norman and o the r French land seekers.

By W illiam. T he king of France was less powerful than man y of the great landlords. Behind Be eker send am knighrs. In their fear th ey set fire to nearby houses and rhe coronation ce remony ended in disorder. The floor was covered wirh rushes or reeds.

T hese were not free to leave the estate. T he king was connected through thi s "chain" of people to the lowest man in th e co untry. The basis of feuda l soc iety was the holding of lan d. Th is promise was usually made with the lord sitting on his chair and h is vassal kneel ing before him. ElItT since rhe Middle Ages. The walls were decorated with U! OlIt't1 woollen embroidered hangi"Ks.

Keeps of this kindhad a weU. The nob le kept "serfs" to work on his own land. This was The greas hall in Casrle Headingham.

Others Sflf on benches. T he king gave large estates to h is main nobles in return for a promise to serve him in war for up to forty days. So me freemen paid for the land by doin g milirary service. S an idea of! These replaced! T he cen tral idea was that all lan d was owned by the king but it was held by others. T he grea ter nob les gave part of the ir lan ds to lesser nob les. T he nobles also had to give hi m part of the prod uce of th e land. T he re were two basic princip les to feuda lism: At each level a man had to promise loyalty and service to his lord.

Robcrr's invasion was a failure and he acce pted payment to return to Normandy. When Wi lliam d ied. A nd so on. He knew tha t many of h is nobles would willingly follow h im to Normandy so that they He gave England to hi s second son.

So feuda l duties were extreme ly important. It so re minded them of the paint ings of the Day of Judgement. He had to give them land and protec tion. He therefore sent a team of peop le all through England to make a co mplete econo mic survey. The ir younge r brothe r.

Be tween and the mid fourteenth ce ntury there were on ly thirty years of complete peace. W illiam gave o ur land a ll over Englan d to his nob les. W he n a nobl e d ied his son usua lly roo k o ver h is estate. T he na me stuc k. If the king di ll n ot give the no bles land th ey would not fig h t for him. He needed th is information so rhar he could plan h is eco no my.

Roberr was very an gry and prepa red to invade. W illiam controlled two large areas: N or ma ndy. Blit it rook him a year to organ ise an army. If h e was still a ch ild the king wou ld often ta ke the pro duce of th e esta te un ti l th e boy was o ld eno ugh to look afte r the estate himself. At the t ime of William 's death. Afte r a ll. Ro be rt. He had not marri ed. He had been wi th W illiam at the time of the acc ident.

He the n rode to We stminster. The Do mesday Book still ex ists. If a ll the nob le's family died th e land went back to the king.

Wi ll iam Ru fus d ied in a hunting acc ide n t in But first he had to receiv e permission from the king and make a spec ial pay me nt. Roberr was on hi s way hom e to Normandy fro m the Hol y Lan d. T his survey was the on ly on e of its kind in Europe. T h is was not easy beca use most of the m held land in Normandy too. His men asked all kinds of question s at eac h set tlemen t: How much land was there? How much was it worth? How many famil ies. By h e wanted to kn ow exac tly who owned whic h piece of land.

In th is way the kin g could bene fi t from the death of a noble. But the ki ng often kep t th e land for so me years. W hen Roberr went to fight th e Muslims in th e Hol y Lan d. Bot h were personal possession s. The Norma n nohles in England had to c ho ose between Hen ry and Roh er r.

To W illiam the im port an t diffe rence betwee n N or ma ndy and Eng lan d was tha t as duke of Norma ndy h e h ad to recogn ise the k ing of Fran ce as hi s lord. T he king had to make sure he had enough satisfied nobl es who would be will ing to tigh r for h im. But Henry wante d more. He rod e to Winchester and took c harge of the king's treasury. In the end they c hose Hen ry beca use he was in Lon don.

N ot surprising ly. Geoffrey Plan tagen et. During the next fifteen years Henry hoped for ano the r son but fi nally accep ted tha t his daughter. Maril da was with her hu sban d in A njo u and Hen ry's neph ew. Al so as before. Henry l's most important aim was to pass on bo th Nor mandy and England to his successor. As lord of A njou he adde d h is fat he r's land s to th e fami ly empire. Most chose Srephc n. Nor mandy and England were reunited und er one ruler.

Ste phe n raced to England to cl aim the c rown. He was described at the time as "of outstanding skill in arms. Henry had married Marilda to anot her great noble in France. Srephen died the following year. Henry 1I was the fi rst unquestion ed ruler of th e English throne for a hu ndred years.

It took years for Englan d to recover from th e civil war. O - lands belongIngto. Ge offrey was heir to A njou. Fortunatel v for Englan d. Geotlrey D tands Plantagenet. He destro yed the castles wh ich many nob les had built withou t royal permission durin g Srephen's reign.

But th en Henry him self qua rrelled publicly with Mari lda's hu sband. In 11 06 Henry inv aded Norma ndy and captured Rober r. As someo ne wrote at the time. Henr y 1I was ruler of far more land than any previous king.

N eit he r side co uld win. But in Henry 's on ly son was drowned at sea. Mar ilda invaded England four years later. He spent th e rest of his life fight ing tn keep Normandy from o ther Fren ch nobles who tr ied to take it. The manor again became th e centre of loca l life and admin istra t ion. He made all the nobles promise to acce pt Matilda when he died.

Her fight with Ste phe n led to a te rrible civil war in wh ich vill ages were destroyed and many peop le we re killed.

This left th e succession in question. Srephen of Blois. As Henry had done before him. God and his ang els slept.

Hen ry hoped tha t the family lands wou ld be made larger by th is marr iage. Henry ll 's empi re stretched from th e Scott ish border to th e Pyren ees. Afte r his marriage to Elean or of Aqu itaine he also ruled the lands south of A njo u. A n Illustrated Histo ry of Britain inherited rrom his father. Rich ard was killed in Fran ce.

Richa rd and John. The duke dem anded money before he would let him go. Rich ard. And altho ugh Henry recognised the king of Franc e as the overlord of all his Fren ch lands. Richard's shieldcarries the beulge of the English kings. He had spent no more tha n four or five years in th e co unt ry of which he was king.

In 11 89 Henry died a broken man. Rich ard was ever yone's idea of th e perfect feuda l king. Man y of Henry's nob les held land on both sides of th e English cha nnel. Shortly afte r. He went to th e Holy Land to make war on the Muslims and he fought with skill.

Henr y quarrelled with his beautifu l and powerful wife. He was brave. W hen he died th e Fren ch kin g too k over parts of Rich ard's Fren ch lands to rule him self. Rich ard I has always been one of England's most popular kings.

It may seem surprising that Richard and Joh n fought against their own father. The fhree gold lilms called "leupards" in heraldic language on a red field stillform fWO of fhe four "qlUlrrers" of the Royal Stand ard or shield wJay. England prov ided most of Henry' s wealth. Richard 1. Hen ry was followed by his rebell ious son. But in fact th ey were doi ng th eir dut y to th e kin g of France. On his way back from the Ho ly Land Rich ard was captured by th e duke of Au str ia.

John was unpopular mainl y beca use he was greed y. In John gave in. T he y were called "paid fighters". T he nob les refused to fight for lon ger. Most were not free. He did the same with the bishoprics. T he nobles did not allow John's successors to forget th is c harter and its promises. In John quarrelled with th e pope ove r who sho uld be Arc hbisho p of Can terbury. At the time perhaps less th an one quarter of the English were "free rne n".

In othe r cases when a nob le died with ou t a son. In the same way. But it too k anot he r three hundred years before it disappeared comp letely. T hat was not a "feuda l" th ing to do. He had taken their money but he had not protect ed the ir land. John had already made him self unpopu lar with the three most important groups of peop le. A t a time when most people believed th at without the C hurch th ey would go to hell. The feudal lords in England had always run rheir own law courts and profited from th e fines paid by th ose brought to court.

Hundreds of years lat er. But John too k many cases out of thei r courts and tried the m in th e king's co urts. As for th e merch ants and towns. In John hoped to recapture Normandy. T hey established a committee of twenty-four lords to make sure John kept his promises.

T he French king invaded Normandy and th e English nobles lost their land s there. In King Joh n beca me even more unp opular with his nob les. In fact Magna Ca rta gave no real freedo m to the majori ty of people in England. There were othe r small signs th at feudalism was chang ing. T he pope ca lled on the king of Fran ce to invade England. A t th e same time many lords preferred the ir vassals to pay th em in money rather than in services.

A t Runn vmede the nobles we re not acting as vassals but as a class. John was forced to sign a new agree me n t. It was nor mal for a feuda l lord to make a payment to the king whe n his daughter was marri ed.

But forty days were not lon g eno ugh for fighting a war in Fran ce. Magna C arta was used by Parl iament to protect itself from a powerful kin g. Magna Carta marks a clear stage in the co llapse of English feudalism. W hen the kin g went to war he had th e righ t to forty days' fighting service from each of his lords. Feudal soc iety was based on links bet ween lord and vassal.

An Illustrated History of Britain Rich ard had no son. The nobles who wrote it and forced King John to sign it had no such th ing in mind. They had one main aim: John had failed to ca rry out his duty to the m as duke of Norma ndy. Joh n kept the land for a long time. Outside Londo n at Runn ymede. Vassals we re gradually beg inn ing to change into tenants.Ami so when h is group of monk s made little progress with th e King Offa arranged for his son to be crow ned as his ordina ry people.

John was forced to sign a new agree me n t. T hey spoke C elt ic as well as anothe r. Yet they remained local economic centres lon g after th e Roman s ca me to Britain , and long after they went.

Hen ry previous king.

KAMILAH from Santa Rosa
See my other posts. I'm keen on sack race. I do fancy bravely .