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Developing Spreadsheet-Based. Decision Support Systems. Using Excel and VBA for Excel. Michelle M.H. S¸eref. Decision and Information Sciences. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING. SPREADSHEET-BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS. By. MICHELLE M. HANNA. A THESIS. Developing Spreadsheet-Based Decision Support Systems Michelle M.H. Seref, Ravindra Seref, Ravindra A. Ahuja, Wayne L. Winston ebook PDF download.

If we want to modify the original column of data in cells B2: B6 by multiplying each value by Excel Basics and Formatting Figure 2. Say we have a value in a cell that is separate from the range of data we wish to modify. The resulting values. It also includes some shortcuts to format cells that we will discuss later in this chapter. Copy Format Painter. For example. We can leave these toolbars floating on the screen as shown in Figures 2. Note that some shortcut keys are provided in the drop-down list.

The Formatting toolbar in Figure 2. The Standard toolbar in Figure 2. The drop-down menus also offer cascading features. The two main toolbars that feature the most common operations are the Standard and Formatting toolbars. Icons in each drop-down list refer to toolbars that offer some of the same options in the menu. Print Preview. When working with several drawing images.

To place a figure on the screen. The Drawing toolbar allows us to place figures such as rectangles. Excel Basics and Formatting 7 Figure 2. After clicking and dragging the figure to the screen. A dialog box then appears. We can select many figures by using the white arrow icon in the toolbar and group them together by right-clicking on the selection.

These are helpful when drawing a diagram or a flow line. Grouping figures is helpful when constructing a large diagram made up of several figures that we may want to resize or format as one group.

We can also add text boxes to a worksheet which can be formatted differently than text in cells. To locate more figure options. This option can also be used to customize toolbars. Summary Menu contains the standard Windows options of File. This option creates a text box that automatically matches the shape we have created. To customize a toolbar. To add text to a drawing object. To drag-and-drop.

Drawing objects can be useful visual aids in Excel. Customization can simplify the process of accessing repeated items. A dialog box is a separate window that provides several modifiable options on different tabs. Two main toolbars are Standard and Formatting. Excel Basics and Formatting 8 The dialog box is a separate window that has several modifiable options on different tabs.

We can select any command from any category on the Commands tab to add to the Drawing toolbar. This will display a limited list of icons available for addition to either toolbar.

We will discuss customizing toolbars and menu items in more detail in Chapter In the Toolbars tab. In the Commands tab. The Drawing toolbar in Figure 2. Note that we can also add or remove buttons from the Standard and Formatting toolbars by clicking on the small arrow at the end of the toolbar. Suppose that we frequently open new files while working on drawing figures.

The Options tab lists some display settings for toolbars. To do so. A dialog box then appears that allows us to edit toolbars by modifying their commands and display options see Figure 2.

At that time. The Attach key attaches specific toolbars to a particular workbook. We can also create a new toolbar with this option. We have already learned how to format figures from the Drawing toolbar by using a dialog box.

We may either wish to create a table of Dates or Times with a particular uniform format. The Numbers tab shown in Figure 2. The standard format for telephone numbers.

The first tab. Excel Basics and Formatting 10 Figure 2. A dialog box with six tabs then appears see Figure 2. By using symbols such as.

We also use a dialog box to format cells. This tab also includes a Custom type option. The Alignment tab sets the horizontal and vertical placement of a cell or range data and also determines indention and text orientation.

The Format Cells dialog box in Figure Hanna. Excel Basics and Formatting 11 Figure 2. The Text control options reveal that the cell has been merged with one or more cells. Excel Basics and Formatting 12 2. We can also click within the border box to eliminate one line of a border at a time. We can set the font type and size as well as color and other highlighting features. For instance. We select one line at a time by clicking within the border box. The entry has no particular horizontal placement or indentation.

The Border tab allows us to add a variety of border styles to a cell range.

The next tab. Excel Basics and Formatting 13 Figure 2. Excel Basics and Formatting 14 The Patterns tab. This option is beneficial when creating a form where some cells should be free for users to input information. We will discuss this in more detail in Chapter 4. The hidden option hides any cell formulas or functions if the worksheet is protected. The last tab. This is only applicable when viewing the formulas in a worksheet.

To lock cells. The Protect Sheet option prevents anyone from entering or changing data in locked cells. Keep in mind that this icon may be in another toolbar depending on how we have customized them. Rows and columns can also be hid or revealed and.

If we select any new cell or range of cells. Excel Basics and Formatting 15 Figure 2. Auto Fit can alter the dimensions of rows and columns. We can apply the Auto Format option. We can also format sheets by renaming them. To do this without repeating all of the previous formatting icon in modifications.

It offers several preset table designs that we can apply to a spreadsheet. After we have selected one or more cells and formatted them. The data in the cells does not change. Excel automatically formats them to match the highlighted cells. Pressing OK again makes Hanna. We click OK to return to the Style window. Excel Basics and Formatting 16 Figure 2.

To change some categories. Uncheck any aspects that should not be included in the format. We can also choose Style from the Format menu option list to apply general formatting to the entire worksheet. A dialog box appears that displays the current formatting for each of the six formatting categories. In Figure Hanna. After that. At this point. The option box on the far left allows us to choose between cell value with Cell Value Is.

Excel Basics and Formatting 17 everything in the worksheet in bold-italics. We can continue to format specific cells from now on. To make comparisons outside of the selected cell or cells. We can then select Add to create another condition or OK to finish.

The formatting options we choose can be previewed in the space next to the Format button.

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Instead of entering a numerical value. We select bold-italic. See Chapter 4 for a more detailed discussion of formulas. To delete a Hanna. Excel Basics and Formatting 18 2. Numbers and text are simple values. Conditional Formatting is beneficial when we are working with large sets of data and want to distinguish certain values from others.

We will discuss the latter two in subsequent chapters. To enter this type of data into a table. The cursor then transforms into a small cross. We may be looking for particular results or patterns of data that we can specify by creating conditions and formatting them differently than the other data. To copy a cell or range of cells to surrounding cells. Excel Basics and Formatting 19 conditional format applied to a range of cells. This time. Excel recognizes the numerical pattern and.

Excel automatically enters data if it detects a pattern. Excel Basics and Formatting 20 Figure 2. If we are numbering by even or odd numbers only. Excel creates the same pattern. We then see an arrow or another change in the cursor.

The first uses the click-and-drag option. Excel Basics and Formatting 21 Two useful shortcuts simplify these functions. Excel then automatically determines when the data values end and highlights the section up to this point.

They follow an object hierarchy.

The second shortcut. If we want to copy a formula to the end of a list of data. A dialog box with six Hanna. Used to copy a highlighted cell or range of cells to an adjacent cell or range of cells. A dialog box will appear that allows you to edit the toolbars by modifying commands and display options. Excel then continues the enumeration. The first. Excel provides a warning that it will replace this data with the new selection.

One last note on moving data in Excel: To move an entire table or even one cell. Simple values: Numbers and text that are entered into cells. The object model is the entire system of objects. Style from the Format menu option list applies general formatting rules to the entire worksheet.

Exercises 2. How can you construct a shape such as a triangle or an oval in Excel? How can you create your own toolbar?

What are the six categories of formatting options available in the Format Cells dialog box? Write a Custom format for a social security number.

Rows and columns can be formatted by setting a particular height or width. What option in the main Excel menu is unique to Microsoft Excel?

List some of the choices available in the drop-down list for this option. Use the Drawing toolbar to create the following AutoShape. Conditional Formatting formats cells only if they meet a specified condition. How can you lock particular cells in a worksheet? When would this be necessary? How can you evenly distribute the widths of a set of columns? What are the benefits of the AutoFormat option? What are the shortcut keys for cut.

The Auto Format option in the Format list offers several preset table designs that you can apply to a spreadsheet. Which tab of the cell formatting menu includes the options to merge cells and wrap text? What are four options for the data type of a cell entry? Data entry in Excel pertains to four different types of data: What are four examples of Excel objects? How does the object hierarchy differ from the object model?

List the object hierarchy for the following Excel objects: The fill color should be yellow and the border should be blue. To specify the condition for the cells. Excel Basics and Formatting 23 2.

Using the options on the Formatting toolbar. Use commands from various categories to custom create the toolbar shown below: A professor uses the table shown in Figure A to take roll in his class. Enter this table into an Excel spreadsheet. The table in Figure A displays the amount of sales dollars earned and the percentage of returns made for three new products recently introduced onto the market.

A financial analyst is comparing the following list of stock prices: Enter his list into a spreadsheet. A chemical engineer is conducting an experiment that tests the solubility of three unknown substances Substances A. Using conditional Hanna. Solution is supersaturated. A student keeps a list of his bill payment due dates.

Her new observations include the following: If some of the substance remains undissolved by the time the water is boiling. He wants to identify all the dates in October. Since all of the substances dissolved. Enter these prices into an Excel worksheet and display them as fractions rounded to the nearest sixteenth.

Enter the data below into a spreadsheet by using the click-and-drag method: Use the AutoFormat option to format your table. Her initial observations include the following: Create a table to compare the results of the two experiments by entering this data into Excel.

If a substance remains undissolved at room temperature. Display all negative transactions within parentheses. Excel Basics and Formatting 25 formatting. A bank uses spreadsheets to record the transactions made by each of its account holders.

Make the statement easier for an account holder to read by using the options under the Numbers tab in the Format Cells dialog box to change the number types of the cells in the following ways: Remove the leading zeroes from the transaction numbers. Deposits and earnings result in an increase in the account balance.

This information is then used to prepare bank statements for the account holders as shown below: Transa ction No. Show currency symbols on all monetary transactions. The following table displays the Hanna. Copy the names from the original table and paste them in a row in cells A Each cell of column D3: D7 contains a formula that divides the number of points by the number of games of each player to calculate their points per game.

Also include demographic characteristics about each customer. Copy the entire table and transpose it to cells A Copy the entire table. Excel Basics and Formatting 26 forecasted demand in thousands for various items for January through June. Create a table that includes basic personal information about each customer. The column D3: D7 uses the data from cells B3: C7 to compute each player's points per game. The marketing department of a firm wants to create a spreadsheet of customer information so that it can plan target markets.

Enter several mock customers into your table. Below is a table with the annual rate of interest paid by 3-month Treasury bills for each month in The table below lists the names. Create this table. You will need to use a cell outside of the table. This table contains monthly prices of the M and N stocks. Copy the table below to an Excel spreadsheet. Use Paste Special Operations to transform the column of annual interest rates. Changes in stock price are also calculated. Excel Basics and Formatting 27 divided by Copy this data to a range below so that the sales values are read as rows and not columns.

The table below stores quarterly sales for four products. Using conditional formatting. Then format the balance values as currency so that the negative values are red and in parentheses. Excel Basics and Formatting 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 91 93 87 55 65 69 55 55 54 68 83 70 73 70 59 87 68 57 65 74 51 John is trying to review his bank balance for the last several weeks.

Highlight the fourth quarter sales values in red. Number 20 entries using the click-and-drag method. Review the quarterly sales for an office supplies company below: Year Quarter 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Sales Perform the following actions: Excel Basics and Formatting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Date 30 Balance -9 9 Create your own accounting table. Change the formatting of the Sales column to currency.

The table has left. The following are the features of the new style: Numbers are formatted as percentages with 2 decimal places.

The text and numbers are centrally aligned. Create a new format style. The font size is 12pt and the font is set to Time New Roman.

Use the new style to format the data on the table that corresponds to Hands-On Exercise Excel Basics and Formatting 31 The table is shaded using the blue color. Chapter 3 Referencing and Names Chapter Overview 3. Excel automatically advances the row number by one unit.

This chapter may be most useful for the reader who is inexperienced in Excel. We use this method when constructing formulas to prevent making errors when referencing appropriate cells. We name an entire row or column of cells by listing the first and last cell separated by a colon. In Figure 3. We can reference cells. This method of referencing cells is convenient when using a large range of cells in a formula.

Excel automatically transforms the values and names of the cells in the function according to the direction of the operation. The functions in cell B16 and C16 are shown in the code Hanna. Referencing is important for using cells in formulas and in VBA code. These are basic but very important concepts. To express the importance of the differences between these referencing types. If we want to copy the SUM function from B16 into the adjacent cell.

Figure 3. In order to take advantage of the capabilities of organizing large data in a spreadsheet application.

When typing a formula or a simple operation in a cell. We can also place the cursor at the bottom right-hand of cell B16 until it transforms into a small cross. Chapter 3: Referencing and Names 3. If we copy one cell to the right. Referencing and names will be used often in creating a DSS and these concepts should be clear to the user in Excel before they learn referencing and names in VBA. Excel automatically advances the column letter of each cell name by one unit. We define the product operation in E12 as follows: Relative referencing is expressed in the following format: B8 The only difference between the format of relative referencing and absolute referencing is the addition of a dollar sign.

Referencing and Names 3 below. We multiply both sums from B16 and C16 by the number in cell E4 and place the result in the Product cells. This is an example of relative referencing.

C13 Note in the figure that the format for both functions remains the same. Excel automatically shifts the row and column names in the function relative to the displacement of the copy and paste action.

For absolute referencing. Both the row and column values change. Excel still automatically transfers the reference to C In this case. To enforce this. We want: E4 automatically changes to F4 when the default of relative referencing is assumed. Instead of calculating each element individually. To make sure all of the first set of numbers comes from row 2 only we use row absolute referencing. Referencing and Names 5 b Figure 3. Excel automatically updates the column values for the first number and the row values for the second number.

Assume we are trying to calculate a multiplication table between two sets of numbers. Consider another example. Absolute referencing. Row absolute referencing prevents the row value from changing when a formula is copied to another cell and column absolute referencing prevents the column value from changing.

To do this. Note that the shortcut key F4 changes the reference type. As we can see in Figure 3. Our rows and columns are now both numbered. Referencing and Names 6 a b Figure 3. It is important to understand the differences among these common referencing types. We check R1C1 reference style from the list of options on that tab. Spreadsheet applications use several formulas that usually refer to values in many different cells.

If we enter a formula into a cell. Column absolute referencing keeps the column value from changing when a formula is copied. The name of a cell is written without brackets. Row Absolute: Row value does not change. Column Absolute: Column value does not change. Summary Relative Referencing: Row and column value will change B2. To ensure that our calculations are accurate. Instead of referring to a cell by its row and column value. Absolute Referencing: Note the notation R1C1 is used to denote the name of a cell.

As another example. We can even work in the default-referencing mode A1. R1C1 notation is therefore a helpful check method to ensure that we copied the formulas correctly. Notice that only relative referencing is used with R1C1 Notation. Referencing and Names 7 For example. Even though this type of referencing may seem tedious.

Our origin cell is now A2 which is R2C1.

R1C1 notation: Summary 3. To use it. When writing code. Excel offers a formula view that displays cells by their formulas instead of their calculated values. Referencing and Names 8 Figure 3. The formula view shows only the cell formulas and not the calculation R1C1 notation also becomes important when working with VBA code.

R1C1 notation is the clearest way to ensure that we are referencing cells correctly in our formulas.

For our example above. C3 See Figure 3. Notice however that these sheet names have spaces in them. A1 Assume we have created two sheets. Referencing and Names 10 b Figure 3.

2004 Hanna, Ahuja, and Winston

A1 Workbook with spaces in the title: A1 Also note that if the workbook we are referring to is not currently open in Excel. A1 Workbook not currently open in Excel: A1 Summary Referencing worksheets and workbooks: Worksheet in the same workbook: A1 Workbook: A1 Note that if there is a space in our workbook title. To see all current names in the active workbook.

Range names should be unique per workbook. Excel will then perform a specified number of iterations. A named range is absolutely referenced. We cannot use spaces in range names. If the formulas for a. Range names can be any sequence of letters and numbers that create a significant name and follow some brief rules. The values of the variables are changed by a mathematical model the Gauss-Seidel Iteration. We can find the cell references of these range names by clicking on a name from this list.

To highlight a cell or a range of cells. Range names are not case sensitive in Excel. Referencing and Names 11 A referencing loop in a spreadsheet creates a circular reference. We can work with cell references directly by using the Define option for creating names.

Excel offers another tool to aid in sequential calculations. A circular reference occurs.

A Brief History of Decision Support Systems

Circular referencing can often. To move a range name. F3 works as a shortcut for this operation. Single cells. To name the first value in the table in Figure 3. Ranges can be named in three different ways: This tool is particularly useful in VBA Hanna. Referencing and Names 12 3. Excel automatically provides a name. The screen shown in Figure 3. Several range names can be added in the Define Name dialog box by using the Add button.

This simplifies the cell referencing options discussed in Section 3. Excel then searches the worksheet for any formulas that reference these cell names and updates them. We define Sheet1!

The names can also be used to reference these cells in formulas. Names can also be deleted using the Delete button. Name references can also be modified in this window by selecting a name from the list and then changing the values in the Refers to section of the dialog box.

The window in Figure 3. Notice no quotations are used. Note that only one name can be deleted at a time. Referencing and Names 13 coding when referring to cell names in calculations. Our example in Figure 3. Other options are also shown in this screen. Instead of defining each cell name separately. When using this method. We select Left column from the Create Names screen to indicate that we want all of the names in the left column of the highlighted selection to be the names of the corresponding data cells.

Referencing and Names 15 a b Figure 3. The same procedure can be followed to name an entire range of data. We create range names for each column of the table by highlighting all of the columns and their table labels C2: We select an element from the table. Note that the cells do not have names now. To name each element of our table completely. Note that we cannot use spaces when we are naming cells. We continue this process to name all the other elements in the table. Creating a name for a constant is simple.

This method is most helpful if we are defining multiplier values such as rates or weighted constants. Referencing and Names 16 a b Figure 3. VBA code becomes much clearer when we use names instead of cell and range references in formulas. We examine functions in detail in Chapter 4.

D6 To find the average of the results of these two formulas. As you will see in Part II. Referencing and Names 17 We can define a formula name by typing the formula in the Refers to area at the bottom of the Define Name window.

D6 The substitution of names for formulas simplifies calculations that use the results of several different formulas. Naming also helps us keep data and calculations organized in a spreadsheet application. Applying Names: Updates formulas with new cell and range names. Creating Names: Used when row and column labels are already given in a table. This can be an easy and convenient way to name cells.

To correct this error. Workbooks are referenced as [Data. Use creating names when row and column labels are already given in a table. This type of referencing is important in VBA coding. Applying names is necessary to update formulas with new cell and range names.

Formulas or references that use these natural range names also automatically shift respectively when copied or moved. Spaces are allowed in these names because they have been taken directly from the spreadsheet. This option allows us to refer to a row or column of data from our table by the corresponding row or column title as if we had created a range name.

In relative referencing B2. Referencing and Names Summary 18 Defining Names: Names cells. Note that all three cells would have the same formula. How does R1C1 notation refer to a cell? The table below displays the data the engineers collected from several of the workers: To create the most ergonomic design possible. How do you set R1C1 as the default notation in Excel?

Relative reference to cell G7. Absolute reference to cell A2. How do you refer to a cell in a different worksheet from the one in which the formula is being written? Row absolute reference to cell B6. Write the syntax for each of the following references: When typing a formula in cell C2 using R1C1 notation. How do you use natural range names?

Give an example of circular referencing. The team asked the assembly workers: How is defining a constant different from naming a cell? What are the four basic ways to refer to a cell? A team of industrial engineers is designing a new workstation for the assembly of a product.

How can a relative reference be changed to an absolute reference? What is the shortcut key to do this? Column absolute reference to cell J The team plans to consider ergonomic factors in the design to minimize fatigue of the assembly personnel.

Developing Spreadsheet-Based Decision Support Systems

How do you refer to cells in a workbook not currently open in Excel? How can you update a formula when a cell or range name within that formula has been changed? How is defining names different than creating names? Referencing and Names 20 Enter the data above into a spreadsheet.

Using the Create option. Materials A. The engineer tests each of the materials and obtains the following results: A materials engineer is comparing various properties of ceramics to determine the most appropriate material for use in a car engine. Define names for each row and column of your table. Also define a name for the whole table. Use column headings to describe the contents of each column.

The spreadsheet below is used to calculate the area of a rectangle given the parameters length and width. What is the formula now shown in cell B5? Create each of the tables on a separate worksheet. Referencing and Names c d e 21 Use these names to find the circumference.

Create a ten-cell column that begins in cell A1 and contains the integers 1 through Use these names to find the area. A tile manufacturer uses spreadsheets to monitor the quarterly sales of each of its regional distributors. Change the values in cell B2 to 10 and give the resulting circumference and area. The tables below display the sales for the years One must be very careful when using named columns or rows in a spreadsheet. The table below is used to compute the amount of interest earned for each account: Create this table in an Excel spreadsheet and use it to perform the following functions: Referencing and Names 22 A final table is used to compile all of the sales over the three-year period.

Complete the table with the regional sales for each quarter of each year by referencing the first three tables. Enter the chart into a spreadsheet.

Create names for each row and column of data. These generic formulas will be replaced with actual formulas that perform calculations in the next chapter. The bank in problem 8 is considering increasing the interest rates it provides to checking account holders. Enter the table below into a spreadsheet. Re-compute the values in this column using R1C1 notation.

Problem 9. Refer to the table in Chapter 2. Modify the formulas in cells D2 and E2 so that each refers to the appropriate interest rate. Paste the table onto a spreadsheet so that the upper left cell. The table below is used to compute the velocity of a vehicle given the time and distance traveled. Below is the formula to perform this conversion: This can be done using names from part a or part b above.

Referencing and Names 24 The table below is used to compute the force per square meter of a falling object hitting the ground. B12 by its corresponding state abbreviation from column A. The table below records the June retail sales of ten southeastern states.

The spreadsheet below is used to convert a table of data in degrees Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius. Table of Degrees in Fahrenheit 45 54 25 23 6 61 42 29 34 97 5 9 32 Table of Degrees in Celsius 83 79 93 69 72 Re-compute the values of the force and force per area columns using R1C1 notation.

Enter the table into an Excel spreadsheet as shown below. Using natural range names. Using natural range names and referencing. Create a formula that will perform this multiplication. Perform the following operations: The table below provides a five-month documentation of beginning inventories. In the table below. Cash inflow and outflow from January to May are recorded in the table below. Referencing and Names 25 Using the distance of each flight leg in the table below.

In August. Referencing and Names 26 Track the following plane route: Houston to Los Angeles to Seattle to Chicago. Note that: At the end of each month. In Houston. In this Chapter we also discuss the new conditional formatting features of Excel. In Chapter 3 we discuss the new and improved charting interface of Excel and introduce Sparklines. In Chapter 4 we discuss some of the improvements made on Excel's function library.

In Chapter 6 we present some of the improved capabilities for working with pivot tables and introduce Slicers. In Chapters 8 and 9 we use Risk Solver Platform for Education to model and solve optimization and simulation problems. In Chapter 10 we present the new Official Excel Table tools and discuss its capabilities to organize and manipulate data. For instructions on how to access Risk Solver Platform for Education, please visit this page. The use of Risk Solver Platform has especially improved the coding efficiency and performance of these case studies.

Educational Philosophy The ability to extract data from external sources and embed analytical decision models within larger systems are two of the most valuable skills required for entering today's information technology dominated workplace. Such decision support systems DSSs may be developed in various environments that support data storage, data analysis, solution method development, and graphical user interface.

Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software provides all of the necessary components to build a DSS. It enables the data to be stored in a spreadsheet, optimization and simulations models to be built, and data to be manipulated using the programming language VBA for Excel, and it provides tools to build graphical user interfaces.

Microsoft Excel Add-Ins, such as, Risk Solver Platform for Education, are accessory software that extend the capabilities of existing Excel applications to perform optimization, simulation, risk analyses, etc. Microsoft Excel is the most popular software engineers and managers use in their workplace.

Thus, Excel offers an excellent environment to build a DSS, and our students can very easily acquire these skills. This book describes all the necessary techniques to build such systems. The book is designed to meet the needs of undergraduate as well graduate students for courses in business school or operations research or industrial engineering departments. The book can be used as a textbook for full courses, or it can be used as a reference book to supplement the current material in existing courses.

Developing Spreadsheet-Based Decision Support Systems

The book is also written in a style so that managers, engineers, and practitioners can use it for self-study. The book is self-complete and does not require any previous background. The 25 case studies developed give the instructors a wonderful selection to cover in the class depending upon the audience.

The case studies not only illustrate the applications of models to real-life applications but also illustrate methodologies not often covered in courses, such as neighborhood search and genetic algorithms. Distinguishing Characteristics The book has the following distinguishing characteristics: A unified approach that describes all technologies necessary to build a complete spreadsheet-based decision support system.The table below is used to compute the amount of interest earned for each account: This new edition brings a much needed update to Excel from Excel Column absolute referencing keeps the column value from changing when a formula is copied.

The required delivery should be performed by another route. How can you evenly distribute the widths of a set of columns? The user will be asked to provide the following information: the number of sectors and the number of sites available. For the purpose of this project, the student will have to solve and demonstrate the performance of the heuristic proposed on randomly generated problems.

The case studies are preceded by two chapters which explain the DSS development process and provide more detailed instructions on designing a good user interface and using programming principles in VBA.

However, we do provide several examples in the chapter so that even a reader with minimal modeling experience should be able to understand how to formulate an optimization problem in the spreadsheet and use the Solver to find the solution.

If we want to copy the SUM function from B16 into the adjacent cell.

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