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Page 2 EC Wireless Communication VII Semester ECE an approach increases the effective coverage area and the reliability of the network. However . “EC Wireless Communication (WC) Notes, Previous Years Question Papers ” Department: Electronics & Communication Engineering (ECE). ECE-VIII-WIRELESS COMMUNICATION [10EC81] - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering commercial wireless systems are based that involve the partitioning of an RF radiating area into. that wireless communications should be available in their civilian jobs [26]. Note that for K = 0 or K(dB) = −∞, the Ricean pdf is the same as the Rayleigh pdf. 7 Lecture Notes EC Wireless Communication Lecture Notes - All Units . pdf EC WN (Size: MB / Downloads: 20,).

Notifications of emergencies have to go through to the affected parties, even if that means interrupting an existing, lower priority call. A trunking radio system thus has to enable the prioritization of calls and has to allow dropping a low-priority call in favor of a high-priority one.

Relay networks: Thus, an MS that is out of the coverage region of the BS might send its information to another MS that is within the coverage region, and that MS will forward the message to the BS; the system can even use multiple relays to finally reach the BS. Such Prepared By A. Cordless Telephony Cordless telephony describes a wireless link between a handset and a BS that is directly connected to the public telephone system.

The main difference from a cellphone is that the cordless telephone is associated with, and can communicate with, only a single BS see Figure 1. This has several important consequences: The BS does not need to have any network functionality. Similarly, there is no need to provide for handover between different BSs. There is no central system. For that reason, there is no need for and no possibility for frequency planning.

The fact that the cordless phone is under the control of the user also implies a different pricing structure: In many other respects, the cordless phone is similar to the cellular phone: In its most simple form, a PABX has a single BS that can serve several handsets simultaneously — either connecting them to the PSTN or establishing a connection between them for calls within the same company or house.

Such a system has essentially the same functionality as a cellular system; it is only the size of the coverage area that distinguishes such a full functionality wireless PABX from a cellular network.

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The first cordless phone systems were analog systems that just established a simple wireless link between a handset and a BS; often, they did not even provide rudimentary security i.

Current systems are digital and provide more sophisticated functionality. Both systems operate in the 1,MHz band, using a spectrum specifically dedicated to cordless applications. In the U. As in the cordless phone case, the main advantage is convenience for the user, allowing mobility. Wireless LANs can even be useful for connecting fixed-location computers desktops to the Internet, as they save the costs for laying cables to the desired location of the computer.

A major difference between wireless LANs and cordless phones is the required data rate. For companies that have faster Internet connections, the requirements are proportionately higher. In order to satisfy the need for these high data rates, a number of standards have been developed, all of which carry the identifier IEEE The original IEEE Even higher rates are realized by the However, the owner of the access point can restrict the access — e.

Prepared By A. For example, devices following the Bluetooth standard allows to connect a hands-free headset to a phone without requiring a cable; in that case, the distance between the two devices is less than a meter. Recently, wireless communications between components in an entertainment system DVD player to TV , between computer and peripheral devices printer, mouse , and similar applications have gained importance, and a number of standards for PANs have been developed by the IEEE Fixed Wireless Access Fixed wireless access systems can also be considered as a derivative of cordless phones or WLANs,essentially replacing a dedicated cable connection between the user and the public landline system.

The main difference from a cordless system is that i there is no mobility of the user devices and ii the BS almost always serves multiple users. Furthermore, the distances bridged by fixed wireless access devices are much larger between m and several tens of kilometers than those bridged by cordless telephones. The purpose of fixed wireless access lies in providing users with telephone and data connections without having to lay cables from a central switching office to the office or apartment the user is in.

Considering the high cost of labor for the cable-laying operations, this can be an economical approach.


However, it is worth keeping in mind that most buildings, especially in the urban areas of developed countries, are already supplied by some form of cable — regular telephone cable, cable TV, or even optical fiber. Rulings of the telecom regulators in various countries have stressed that incumbent operators owners of these lines have to allow competing companies to use these lines. As a consequence, fixed wireless access has its main market for covering rural areas, and for establishing connections in developing countries that do not have any wired infrastructure in place.

In general, the business cases for fixed wireless has been disappointing. The IEEE Paging Systems: Similar to broadcast, paging systems are unidirectional wireless communications systems.

They are characterized by the following properties. Originally, the received information Prepared By A. Later, paging systems became more sophisticated, allowing the transmission of short messages e. Still, the amount of information was rather limited. Due to the unidirectional nature of the communications, and the small amount of information, the bandwidth required for this service is small. This in turn allows the service to operate at lower carrier frequencies — e.

As we will see later on, such lower carrier frequencies make it much easier to achieve good coverage of a large area with just a few transmitters.

Pagers were very popular during the s and early s.

EEL 6509 Wireless Communications -- Spring 2001

For some professional groups, like doctors, they were essential tools of the trade, allowing them to react to emergencies in shorter time. However, the success of cellular telephony has considerably reduced their appeal.

Cellphones allow provision of all the services of a pager, plus many other features as well. The main appeal of paging systems, after the year , lies in the better area coverage that they can achieve. There is, however, an alternative in which there is only one type of equipment, and those devices, all of which may be mobile, organize themselves into a network according to their location and according to necessity.

Such networks are called ad hoc networks see Figure 1. There are also ad hoc networks without any hierarchy. While the actual transmission of the data i.

The advantages of ad hoc networks lie in their low costs because no infrastructure is required and high flexibility. The drawbacks include reduced efficiency, smaller communication range, and restrictions on the number of devices that can be included in a network.

Ad hoc networks play a major role in the recent proliferation of sensor networks, which allow communications between machines for the purpose of building control controlling air conditioning, lighting, etc.

Ad hoc networks also play a role in emergency. Satellite Cellular Communications Besides TV, which creates the biggest revenues in the satellite market, cellular communications are a second important application of satellites.

Satellite cellular communications mostly have the same operating principles as land-based cellular communications. However, there are some key differences. Consequently, the transmit powers need to be larger, high-gain antennas need to be used on the satellite and in many cases also on the MS , and communications from within buildings is almost impossible. Another important difference from the land-based cellular system lies in the cell size: This large cell size is the biggest advantage as well as the biggest drawback of the satellite systems.

On the positive side, it makes it easy to have good coverage even of large, sparsely populated areas — a single cell might cover most of the Sahara region. On the other hand, the area spectral efficiency is very low, which means that given the limited spectrum assigned to this service only a few people can Prepared By A. Not only is the launching of a communications satellite very expensive but it is also necessary to build up an appropriate infrastructure of ground stations for linking the satellites to the PSTN.

As a consequence of all these issues, the business case for satellite communications systems is quite different: Emergency workers and journalists in disaster and war areas, ship-based communications, and workers on offshore oil drilling platforms are typical users for such systems.

Typically, a sensor measures some critical parameter, like temperature, speed, etc. Higher data rates are often required for the central nodes of sensor networks that collect the information from a large number of sensors and forward it for further processing.

One category of these services uses the display of the cellphone to provide Internet-like information. Another type of data service provides a wireless mobile connection to laptop computers. The functionality of these links is similar to the previously popular infrared links, but usually provides higher reliability. High-speed data services: WLANs and 3G cellular systems are used to provide fast Internet access, with speeds that range from 0.

Range and Number of Users Another distinction among the different networks is the range and the number of users that they serve. The coverage area of a system can be made almost independent of the range, by just combining a larger number of BSs into one big network.

The range is thus on the order of 1m. Examples are networks linking components of computers and home entertainment systems. That makes cell planning and multiple access much simpler.

WLANs, as well as cordless telephones cover still larger ranges of up to m. The number of users is usually limited to about When much larger numbers occur e. Similarly, cordless phones have a range of up to m and the number of users connected to one BS is of the same order as for WLANs. Cellular systems have a range that is larger than, e.

B.Tech ECE GSM & CDMA, Wireless Communication Notes.

Microcells typically cover cells with m radius, while macrocells can have a radius of 10 or even 30 km. Fixed wireless access services cover a range that is similar to that of cellphones — namely, between m and several tens of kilometers.

Also, the number of users is of a similar order as for cellular systems. Satellite systems provide even larger cell sizes, often covering whole countries and even continents. Cell size depends critically on the orbit of the satellite: Mobility Wireless systems also differ in the amount of mobility that they have to allow for the users.

The ability to move around while communicating is one of the main charms of wireless communication for the user.

Still, within that requirement of mobility, different grades exist. Fixed devices are placed only once, and after that time communicate with their BS, or with each other, always from the same location. The main motivation for using wireless transmission techniques for such devices lies in avoiding the laying of cables. Even though the devices are not mobile, the propagation channel they transmit over can change with time. However, from one drop to the next, the environment can change radically.

Laptops are typical examples: Low mobility: Cordless phones, as well as cellphones operated by walking human users are typical examples. The effect of the low mobility is a channel that changes rather slowly, and — in a system with multiple BSs. Cellphones operated by people in moving cars are one typical example.

These speeds pose unique challenges both for the design of the physical layer Doppler shift, see Chapter 5 and for the handover between cells. Energy Consumption Energy consumption is a critical aspect for wireless devices. Most wireless devices use one-way or rechargeable batteries, as they should be free of any wires — both the ones used for communication and the ones providing the power supply. Rechargeable batteries: Standby times as well as operating times are one of the determining factors for customer satisfaction.

Energy consumption is determined on one hand by the distance over which the data have to be transmitted remember that a minimum SNR has to be maintained , and on the other hand, by the amount of data that are to be transmitted the SNR is proportional to the energy per bit.

One-way batteries: Furthermore, changing the battery is often not an option; rather, the sensor including the battery and the wireless transceiver is often discarded after the battery has run out. Power mains: BSs and other fixed devices can be connected to the power mains. Therefore, energy efficiency is not a major concern for them. It is thus desirable, if possible, to shift as much functionality and thus energy consumption from the MS to the BS.

Use of Spectrum Spectrum can be assigned on an exclusive basis, or on a shared basis. That determines to a large degree the multiple access scheme and the interference resistance that the system has to provide: Spectrum dedicated to service and operator: A prime point in case is Prepared By A. Due to this arrangement, the operator has control over the spectrum and can plan the use of different parts of this spectrum in different geographical regions, in order to minimize interference.

Spectrum allowing multiple operators: Rather, users can set up qualified equipment without a license. Such an approach does not require or allow interference planning.

The ISM band at 2. Also for this case, each user has to adhere to strict emission limits, in order not to interfere too much with other systems and users. However, coordination between users in order to minimize interference becomes almost impossible — different systems cannot exchange coordination messages with each other, and often even have problems determining the exact characteristics bandwidth, duty cycle of the interferers.

Direction of Transmission Simplex systems send the information only in one direction — e. However, only one direction is allowed at any time. Walkie-talkies, which require the user to push a button in order to talk, are a typical example. Note that one user must signify e. However, even in this case, full duplex capability is maintained. Service Quality The requirements for service quality also differ vastly for different wireless services.

The first main indicator for service quality is speech quality for speech services and file transfer speed for data services. It represents the average of a large number of subjective human judgments on a scale from 1 to 5 about the quality of received speech.

An even more important factor is the availability of a service.

Noise and Interference Limited Systems. Noise-Limited Systems Wireless systems are required to provide a certain minimum transmission quality.

Consider now a situation where only a single BS transmits, and a Mobile Station MS receives; thus, the performance of the system is determined only by the strength of the useful signal and the noise. As the MS moves further away from the BS, the received signal power decreases, and at a certain distance, the SNR does not achieve the required threshold for reliable communications.

Therefore, the range of the system is noise limited; equivalently, we can call it signal power limited. Depending on the interpretation, it is too much noise or too little signal power that leads to bad link quality.

As a first approximation, it is usually assumed that the environmental temperature is isotropically K. It is common to write Eq. Man-made noise: We can distinguish two types of man-made noise: Many electrical appliances as well as radio transmitters TXs designed for other frequency bands have spurious emissions over a large bandwidth that includes the frequency range in which wireless communications systems operate.

For urban outdoor environments, car ignitions and other impulse sources are especially significant sources of noise. In contrast to thermal noise, the noise created by impulse sources decreases with Frequency At MHz, it can be 20 dB stronger than thermal noise; at MHz, it is typically 10 dB stronger. Furthermore, for communications operating in licensed bands, such spurious emissions are the only source of man-made noise.

It lies in the nature of the license for which the license holder usually has paid that no other intentional emitters are allowed to operate in this band. In contrast to thermal noise, man-made noise is not necessarily Gaussian distributed.

However, as a matter of convenience, most system-planning tools, as well as theoretical designs, assume Gaussianity anyway. Several wireless communications systems operate in unlicensed bands. In these bands, everybody is allowed to operate emit electromagnetic radiation as long as certain restrictions with respect to transmit power, etc. The most important of these bands is the 2. The amount of interference in these bands can be considerable.

Receiver noise: The amplifiers and mixers in the RX are noisy, and thus increase the total noise power. As the amplifiers have gain, noise added in the later stages does not have as much of an impact as noise added in the first stage of the RX.

The properties of the medium are well defined and time-invariant. The range over which communications can be The range that can be covered is limited both by performed without repeater stations is mostly the limited by attenuation by the medium and thus transmission medium attenuation, fading, and noise ; for optical fibers, the distortion of signal distortion and by the requirements of transmitted pulses can also limit the speed of spectral efficiency cell size. Increasing the transmission capacity can be Increasing the transmit capacity must be achieved achieved by more sophisticated transceiver concepts and by using a different frequency on an existing smaller cell sizes in cellular systems , as the cable, amount of available spectrum is limited.

Interference and crosstalk from other users Interference and crosstalk from other users are either do not happen or the properties of the inherent in the principle of cellular interference are stationary. Due to the mobility of the users, they also are time-variant.

The delay in the transmission process is also The delay of the transmission depends partly on constant, the determined by the length of the cable and the distance between base station and Mobile Station group MS , and is thus time-variant. This means that SNR. Increasing the transmit power usually does a not lead to a significant reduction in BER. Due to the well-behaved transmission medium, Due to the difficult medium, transmission quality the is quality of wired transmission is generally high.

Jamming and interception of dedicated links Jamming a wireless link is straightforward, unless with special measures are taken. Interception of the on- wired transmission is almost impossible air signal is possible. Encryption is therefore without necessary to prevent unauthorized use of the consent Prepared byBy theA.

Devasena network operator Asso. Page 15 Establishing a link is location based. The connection is not associated with a connected to the outlet. Power is either provided through the MSs use rechargeable or one-way batteries. In neither case is energy consumption a major concern for the designer of the device. Interference-Limited Systems Consider now the case that the interference is so strong that it completely dominates the performance, so that the noise can be neglected.

Let a BS cover an area cell that is approximately described by a circle with radius R and center at the location of the BS. As a first approximation, we treat the interference as Gaussian. This allows us to treat the interference as equivalent noise, and the minimum SIR, SIRmin, takes on the same values as SNRmin in the noise-limited case One difference between interference and noise lies in the fact that interference suffers from fading, while the noise power is typically constant averaged over a short time interval.

This results in an overestimation of the true fading margin. Therefore, if we use that value in system planning, we are on the safe side. This can lead to different phases of MPCs, which lead to interference in narrowband systems.


In a system with large bandwidth, and thus good resolution in the time domain,3 the major consequence is signal dispersion: Assuming that no special measures4 are taken, this ISI leads to errors that cannot be eliminated by simply increasing the transmit power, and are therefore often called irreducible errors. ISI is essentially determined by the ratio between symbol duration and the duration of the impulse response of the channel.

This implies that ISI is not only more important for higher data rates but also for multiple access methods that lead to an increase in transmitted peak data rate e. Finally, it is also noteworthy that ISI can even play a role when the uration of the impulse response is shorter but not much shorter than bit duration.

For wireless communications, the transmission medium is the radio channel between transmitter TX and receiver RX. The signal can get from the TX to the RX via a number of different propagation paths. The number of these possible propagation paths are very large. As shown in figure 1 , each of the paths has a distinct amplitude, delay runtime of the signal , direction of departure from the TX, and direction of arrival; most importantly, the components have different phase shifts with respect to each other.

In the following, we discuss some implications of the multipath propagation for system design. The interference between them can be constructive or destructive, depending on the phases of the MPCs, Figure. For this reason, the interference, and thus the amplitude of the total signal, changes with time if either TX, RX, or IOs is moving.

This effect — namely, the changing of the total signal amplitude due to interference of the different MPCs — is called small-scale fading. In other words, even a small movement can result in a large change in signal amplitude. A similar effect is known to all owners of car radios — moving the car by less than 1m e. For cellphones, it can often be sufficient to move one step in order to improve signal quality. As an additional effect, the amplitudes of each separate MPC change with time or with location.

Obstacles can lead to a shadowing of one or several MPCs. Imagine, e. This is due to the fact that the MS is now in the radio shadow of the high-rise building, and any wave going through or around that building is greatly attenuated — an effect called shadowing. The MS has to move over large distances from a few meters up to several hundreds of meters to move from the light to the dark zone.

For this reason, shadowing gives rise to large-scale fading. Spectrum Limitations The spectrum available for wireless communications services is limited, and regulated by international agreements. For this reason, the spectrum has to be used in a highly efficient manner. Two approaches are used: In the following, we first review the frequency ranges assigned to different communications services.

We then discuss the basic principle of frequency reuse for both regulated and unregulated access. In its tri-annual conferences World Radio Conferences , it establishes worldwide guidelines for the usage of spectrum in different regions and countries. Further regulations are issued by the frequency regulators of individual countries, including the Federal Communications Commission FCC in the U. While the exact frequency assignments differ, similar services tend to use the same frequency ranges all over the world.

It is mostly systems that need good coverage, but show low user density. Also some emergency communications systems trunking radio make use of this band. The current secondgeneration cellular systems operate in this band, as do most of the third-generation systems.

Many cordless systems also operate in this band. Also, the frequency range between 5. Also car-to-car communications are working in this band. The amount of spectrum assigned to the different services does not always follow technical necessities, but rather historical developments. For example, for many years, the amount of precious low-frequency spectrum assigned to TV stations was much higher than would be justified by technical requirements.

Using appropriate frequency planning and different transmission techniques including simulcast , a considerable part of the spectrum below 1 GHz could be freed up for alternative usage — a process that took place in U.

Broadcast stations tend to fight such a development, as it would require modifications in their transmitters. As these stations have a considerable influence on public opinion as well as lobbying power, frequency regulators are hesitant to enforce appropriate rule changes. It is also noticeable that the financial terms on which spectrum is assigned to different services differ vastly — from country to country, from service to service, and even depending on the time at which the spectrum is assigned.

Obviously, spectrum is assigned to public safety services police, fire department, military without monetary compensation. Even television stations usually get the spectrum assigned for free. In the s, spectrum for cellular telephony was often assigned for a rather small fee, in order to encourage the development of this then-new service.

Unregulated services, like WLANs, are assigned spectrum without fees. Frequency Reuse in Regulated Spectrum Since spectrum is limited, the same spectrum has to be used for different wireless connections in different locations.

To simplify the discussion, let us consider in the following a cellular system where different connections different users are distinguished by the frequency channel band around a certain carrier frequency that they employ.

If an area is served by a single BS, then the available spectrum can be divided into N frequency channels that can serve N users simultaneously. If more than N users are to be served, multiple BSs are required, and frequency channels have to be reused in different locations. For this purpose, we divide the area a region, a country, or a whole continent into a number of cells; we also divide the available frequency channels into several groups.

The channel groups are now assigned to the cells. The important thing is that channel groups can be used in multiple cells. The only requirement is that cells that use the same frequency group do not interfere with each other significantly.

The large distance between the two cities makes sure that a signal from the MS in Stockholm does not reach the BS in Rome, and can therefore not cause any interference at all. But in order to achieve high efficiency, frequencies must actually be reused much more often — typically, several times within each city. Consequently, intercell interference also known as co-channel interference becomes a dominant factor that limits transmission quality.

Spectral efficiency describes the effectiveness of reuse — i. Since the area covered by a network provider, as well as the bandwidth that it can use, are fixed, increasing the spectral efficiency is the only way to increase the number of customers that can be served, and thus revenue. Methods for increasing this spectral efficiency are thus at the center of wireless communications research. Since a network operator buys a license for a spectrum, it can use that spectrum according to its own planning — i.

The network operator is allowed to use as much transmit power as it desires; it can also dictate limits on the emission power of the MSs of different users. The operator can also be sure that the only interference in the network is created by its own network and users. Frequency Reuse in Unregulated Spectrum In contrast to regulated spectrum, several services use frequency bands that are available to the general public.

For example, some WLANs operate in the 2. Anybody is allowed to transmit in these bands, as long as they i limit the emission power to a prescribed value, ii follow certain rules for the signal shape and bandwidth, and iii use the band according to the rather broadly defined purposes stipulated by the frequency regulators. As a consequence, a WLAN receiver can be faced with a large amount of interference.

This interference can either stem from other WLAN transmitters or from microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other devices that operate in the ISM band. For this reason, a WLAN link must have the capability to deal with interference.

That can be achieved by selecting a frequency band within the ISM band at which there is little interference, by using spread spectrum techniques , or some other appropriate technique. There are also cases where the Prepared By A. In that case, receivers might still have to deal with strong interference, but the structure of this interference is known.

This allows the use of special interference mitigation techniques like dynamic frequency assignment, Dynamic frequency assignment can be seen as a special case of cognitive radio where a transmitter senses which part of the spectrum is currently unused in the location of interest, and dynamically moves the transmit frequency accordingly.

Limited Energy Truly wireless communications requires not only that the information is sent over the air not via cables but also that the MS is powered by one-way or rechargeable batteries.

The requirement for small energy consumption results in several technical imperatives: Such amplifiers — specifically, class-C or class-F amplifiers — are highly nonlinear. For example, constant envelope signals are preferred. This restriction has important consequences for the algorithms that can be used for interference suppression, combating of ISI, etc. The RX especially at the BS needs to have high sensitivity. This in turn would mean that — for identical talktime — the battery would have to be times as large — i.

But the high requirements on RX sensitivity have important consequences for the construction of the RX low-noise amplifiers, sophisticated signal processing to fully exploit the received signal as well as for network planning.

In other words, transmit power should be adapted to the channel state, which in turn depends on the distance between TX and RX power control. If the MS is close to the BS, and thus the channel has only a small attenuation, transmit power should be kept low.

Several of the mentioned requirements are contradictory. For example, the requirement to build an RX with high sensitivity and thus, sophisticated signal Prepared By A.

Engineering tradeoffs are thus called for.

FDMA is a channel access method used in multiple-access protocols as a channelization protocol In FDMA, the entire frequency band is divided into fixed number of frequencies horizontally.

One frequency is assigned to one individual user. If the user is not using the channel for sending or receiving the data means, then the channel will remain idle for that time. This idle time causes wasting of resources. Simultaneously and continuously transmission of data is needed in order to avoid idle time.

Course objectives and outcomes 7. The device is reciprocal the S matrix is symmetric. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. What is broadside array and endfire array? Welcome to the ECE lab manual! And has co-authored several textbooks on signal processing.

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