ESPRESSO ITALIANO PDF
Espresso is now one of the most successful symbols of. “made in Italy” worldwide . It is also one of those that are copied the most, often with very poor results. We do not recommend the use of highly filtered, de-mineralised or distilled water as this may affect the taste of the coffee and how the espresso machine. Giovanna Rizzo e Luciana Ziglio per Italian Espresso 1 (ALMA Edizioni, ). .. an interactive PDF of the whole Textbook; fast access to the Textbook.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Jonathan Morris and others published La globalizzazione dell'espresso italiano. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Making Italian Espresso, Making Espresso Italian | Espresso coffee has become synonymous with Italy. PDF | The aroma profile and the extraction of bioactive compounds of espresso coffee (EC) are influenced by different EC machines working.
Quality Issues. Each page is presented side-by-side in both languages, so with my modest Italian language skills I was able to vouch for its decent English translation.
Certified Italian Espresso
It begins by defining standards for the physical and even mental preparation of the espresso taster. Some of the more interesting quotes in the book? The book makes the strong distinction between the two types of aroma: The latter of which is where the coffee has been cooled to something closer to body temperature, and the molecules released from the lipids in the crema play a large role.
The book presents suggestive information for descriptors when evaluating espresso. One of my favorites being the literal Engish-language term Stinker for the rotten flowers negative odor that can be detected at the back of the throat.
This is apparently caused by micro-organisms that can attack the coffee cherries and beans. The book also explains two forms of standardized IIAC espresso tasting cards, or trialcards. Yet the majority of it is dedicated to the bean-to-cup Zen of an espresso and how factors influence the eventual flavor along the way. This book is not definitive nor complete by any means.
However, I could not help get the impression of how much the specialty coffee industry in America or dare I suggest the Third Wave?
Surprisingly, the book still leaves a lot open to subjectivity — despite the structure it provides in judging criteria. Definitely recommended. They have four books just on grappa alone which might explain a little of my unorthodox grappa obsession. Imitating the noise of the machine, he instead prepares an instant coffee to which he adds powdered milk, dishwashing soap and cigarette ash, before blowing bubbles into the mixture with a straw.
Once the coffee houses lost popularity, not least as the spread of television reduced the market for out-of-house entertainment37, so espresso again became confined to the Italo-American enclaves of the big cities, such as North Beach in San Francisco.
We can see very clearly then, that the initial spread of Italian-style coffee involved considerable adjustments to the beverages themselves, and, above all, the emphasis within the beverage offer. It was local importers who realized the potential of the cappuccino for promoting consumption abroad. Furthermore it was entrepreneurs from outside the ethnic and catering communities who were most prominent in placing Italian coffee in new settings that facilitated its incorporation into local practices and subcultures.
The lure of the latte. At this juncture, then, Italian coffee abroad was far from being a quality beverage. Experts within the coffee world suggested that the taste of espresso in England was not that dissimilar from chewing a pencil, while the Italo-American coffeehouses were accused of serving poor quality blends that had probably been dumped by Italian coffee firms as past their sell-by date However this was part of a more general malaise as the major roasters competed for the domestic market by reducing prices to the customer.
The latter approach was rendered even easier by the liberalisation and eventual collapse of the international coffee agreement in the s , leading to the removal of controls on supply and the encouragement of new entrants into large-scale coffee growing such as Vietnam by the international financial community, resulting in a surplus of coffee and a concomitant fall in prices. It was to counter these trends that the speciality coffee movement began in the United States that sought to link all elements within the coffee chain from growers to retailers in a campaign to raise standards.
The Speciality Coffee Association of America was founded in promoting the use of premium quality beans that had a distinctive taste in the cup — preferable drawn from a single region or estate The question was what beverages could be used to communicate these values to potential customers. Here the specialty movement proved more flexible, encouraging the use of flavoured coffee beans, and the addition of syrups that increased sweetness while appearing to add value.
Certified Italian Espresso
That, however, turned out not to be the case. Rather the appeal of the espresso-based beverages proved to be such that, by , gourmet retailers were reporting that in-store sales were outstripping those of traditionally-brewed premium coffee None the less the end result was a beverage that appealed greatly to customers due to its combination of taste and texture, while the visual theatricality of its preparation testified to its hand- made character.
Within the coffee shops, the work of the barista a term popularised by the speciality movement was made more visible by positioning semi-automatic machines on the back of the counter, in view of the customer.
The development of the personal computer made this easier as refreshment breaks could be taken according to individual preference rather than at convenient moments in the production cycle.
The later spread of the laptop and the provision of wireless-free internet intensified this trend enabling coffee shops to function as alternative work places themselves. The centre of the speciality coffee movement was the Pacific North West, and particularly Seattle. During the s, as the city was transformed from an old industrial centre based on aircraft manufacturing at Boeing, into the capital of the new economy housing the headquarters of Microsoft, so a new business emerged based around coffee carts serving take-away beverages to commuters at the monorail stops and the ferries across the Puget Sound In there were over such carts serving the city, though their numbers were later eclipsed by the coffee shops that sprang up to provide both takeaway and sit down service So who were their patrons?
Italian coffee drinking had become a lifestyle choice, one indicating membership of a status group in which the cultural capital obtainable through education, generational cohort and regional location, were more important than income and occupation. The key protagonist of that revolution was undoubtedly Starbucks, which opened as a gourmet roaster and bean retailer in Seattle in , but was re-invented as a coffee shop chain by Howard Schultz in , allegedly inspired by trips to Milan and Verona.
Schultz however was sensible to the need to adjust the beverages to meet customer demands. A year prior to taking over Starbucks, he had opened a coffee shop called Il Giornale.
As he recounts: In that first store, we were determined to re-create a true Italian-style coffee bar.
Quality Espresso awarded "Espresso Italiano"
Our primary mission was to be authentic. For music, we played only Italian opera. The baristas wore white shirts and bow ties. All service was stand-up with no seating… The menu was covered with Italian words. People started complaining about the incessant opera. The bow ties proved impractical. Some of the Italian foods and drinks needed to be translated. A Starbucks small cappuccino, for instance, is about twice the size of a standard Italian one, but still only contains a single shot of espresso.
Not only did the larger volume appear to give greater value, it also softened the taste. Starbucks did not invent the coffee shop formula, but they were the first to brand it and reproduce it across the country, standardizing both the beverages and the setting. An initial public offering IPO of its stock in enabled Starbucks to extend its reach beyond the North West so that by , of the 3, speciality outlets in the US, were owned by Starbucks By of 12, US coffee houses, 2, were owned by Starbucks and in of 21, coffeehouses, 7, were part of the chain So where were the Italians in all this?
The overall answer has to be that many missed out on the initial opportunities offered by the speciality revolution.
Famously, Faema refused to back Schultz on the basis that Americans would never learn to drink espresso In the end, however, another Italian machine maker would prove to be the beneficiary of US tastes — the artisanal company La Marzocco, based in Florence. Marzocco was founded by Giuseppe Bambi in In , Bambi produced a new GS series of machines which utilised two separate boilers, one for hot water for coffee- making, and the other exclusively for the generation of steam which could be used for the frothing of milk.
While this had considerable advantages for improving temperature stability at the brew head, it was the steaming power that made it so attractive in the American market where this function was in far more demand than the Italian.
Kent Bakke, a Seattleite distributing machines to the local market, was impressed by this feature and began supplying them to local companies including Starbucks. As the coffee chain grew, so too did the demand for Marzocco machines, leading eventually to the establishment of a US factory in Seattle itself. Meanwhile Italian roasters were now better positioned to export their products overseas.
Ernesto Illy, making regular appearances at events such as the SCAA conferences, notably his keynote address to the Seattle meeting in During the s, exports of roasted coffee averaged less than 1m kg. France, Germany and Holland overtook the Holy See in the s, but even in , the amount of coffee being re- exported from Italy was under 12m kg..
In the s, however, this trade took off, with re-exports reaching 58m kg in and It is here that the triumph of espresso-based beverages over traditional preparation styles has been most acute because consumers are reluctant to pay for beverages that they can prepare equally well at home.
While it would be foolish to deny the leading role of the US in developing the new coffee shop format, it is also evident that much of the appeal of the espresso-based beverages is due to their Italian origins.
This re-evaluation coincided with the development of a pan-European youth culture linked through music notably MTV Europe , cheap air travel, and increased student mobility. These changes had already begun to impact upon the coffee sector. The s boom in the UK had seen a growth in eating out, with Italian cuisine being repositioned as a high quality product, in contrast to the cheap and cheerful Spaghetti and Pizza houses of the s. New restaurants served espresso, preferably from a Gaggia, to demonstrate their seriousness Costa Coffee began opening espresso outlets on mainline stations at the end of the s, staffing them with members of Anglo-Italian families known to the Costas, who operated them on a quasi franchise system Both these companies trade heavily on the value implicit in an Italian brand identity.
For many years after the Whitbread takeover, the Costa brothers remained a strong presence in the branding, with emphasis then switched to the Anglo-Italian roastery manager, Gino Amasanti, and his successor Gennaro Pelliciaia. No mention is ever made of Whitbread in these materials.
It would be easy to attack these brands for advertising themselves under false pretences — neither is Italian owned, neither roasts its coffee in Italy, indeed Nero does not even roast its coffee itself. Yet what exactly constitutes authenticity in the world of espresso. Nero, in this respect, sticks closer to the Italian recipes, its standards dictated by its first, Anglo- Italian, operations director, while both it and Costa are wedded to the use of traditional espresso machines: Nero using Faema and Costa a proprietary machine made for it by CMA, the manufacturer based in the Veneto.
Yet when that coffee supplier, Segafredo Zanetti, took a controlling stake in the company in , one of its first innovations was to move to American cup sizes.
Segafredo has now become one of a number of Italian roasters who have extended their operations into the coffee shop sector, with outlets, and has now reached the point that it now roasts most of its coffee outside Italy itself.
Among other leading Italian roasters operating chains are Lavazza with units of Cafe Roma, mainly in Spain, and the new Espressamente Illy concept stores, of which 39 were opened in alone Of course, these activities are not confined to Europe. The burgeoning coffee culture in South East Asia and the so-called Bric developing economies Brazil, Russia, China, India has seen Italian roasters directing much of their effort into these areas with Lavazza acquiring the outlet Barista coffee shop chain in India in , as well as two major Brazilian roasters.
Globalisation has created new opportunities for the Italian coffee industry at a time when the domestic market has become saturated. Among both roasters and machine makers, foreign sales have become the key motor of growth. In , for example, coffee exports rose by The real question for the Italian espresso industry is probably less how to leverage its authentic heritage in foreign markets, than how to preserve it in the domestic one. This is unlikely to be challenged by foreign entrants, such as the US style coffee shops, if only because of the differences in customer habits and attitudes to coffee.
However, consumer demand appears to be in decline, in part because technical innovations have improved the espresso offer from home, office and vending machines to constitute a genuine alternative to that provided at the bar s themselves. Ironically, therefore, just as espresso has become an international icon of Italianess abroad, its most serious challenge will be to sustain that position at home. Capatti, M. Montanari, Italian Cuisine. La Cecla, La pasta e la pizza, Mulino, Bologna, Ellis, The Coffee House.
Bramah, Coffee Makers.
Capponi, La Victoria Arduino. Locatelli, La Pavoni. Panzini, Supplemento ai dizionari italiani, Hoepli, Milan, 6. Panzini, Dizionario modern delle parole che non si trovano nei dizionari comuni, Hoepli, Milano, 9th ed, p. Migliorini, Parole Nuove. Special Issue years.
From to the Third Millenium, Turin, , pp. Produzione e Commercio. Maddox, Classic Cafes.The star chefs of the Southern Tyrol created special coffee variations which we want to present to you and absolutely recommend you to recreate.
By download under license. If you are happy with this please click here otherwise find out more. The real question for the Italian espresso industry is probably less how to leverage its authentic heritage in foreign markets, than how to preserve it in the domestic one.
The overall answer has to be that many missed out on the initial opportunities offered by the speciality revolution. Download PDF here.
You can find out more about cookies at www. Not only did the larger volume appear to give greater value, it also softened the taste. Lyons, Selling Seattle.
In the s, however, this trade took off, with re-exports reaching 58m kg in and