EVOLUTION BY MONROE W STRICKBERGER PDF
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Genetics. Monroe W. Strickberger. Article; Info & Metrics; eLetters; PDF. Loading. PDF extract preview. This is a PDF-only article. The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. Pollinators, herbivores, and the evolution of floral traits. Evolution book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. New edition of a basic introduction to prevailing knowledge and ideas about how. Author of Genetics, Experiments in genetics with Drosophila, Evolution, Answer manual for genetics, Evolution, Introduction to Genetics.
Genetic Fine Structure.
Information Transfer and Protein Synthesis. Nature of Genetic Code. Gene Regulation. Gene Manipulation. Differentiation and Pattern. Changes in Gene Frequencies.
Inbreeding and Heterosis. Genetic Structure of Populations. Speciation and Evolution. Prospects for the Control of Human Evolution.
Author Index. Farmer, J. Artificial life: the coming evolution. Reprinted in Artificial Life II. Feferman, Lind A. Simple rules… complex behavior [video]. Contact: fefie ibm. Crossover reactions between synthetic replicators yield active and inactive recombinants.
Monroe W. Strickberger
Ghiselin, Michael. The economy of nature and the evolution of sex. Goldberg, D.
Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Gould, Steven J. Wonderful life. New York, W. Gray, James.
Natural selection of computer programs. The resources consisted primarily of access to the CPU and partition space. Green, Melvin M. Mobile DNA elements and spontaneous gene mutation. Lambert, J. McDonald, I. Weinstein [eds.
Halvorson, Herlyn O. The origin and evolution of sex.
Monroe W. Strickberger
New York: A. Hapgood, Fred. Why males exist: an inquiry into the evolution of sex. New York: William Morrow. Introduction to the theory of neural computation. Hogeweg, P. Mirror beyond mirror: puddles of life.
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Competition, cooperation, and mutation: Iimproving a synthetic replicator by light irradiation. Huston, Michael. A general hypothesis of species diversity. American Naturalist — Biological diversity and human resources. Impact of Science on Society — Biological diversity: the coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Huston, M. DeAngelis, and W. New computer models unify ecological theory. Bioscience 38 10 : — Jelinek, Warren R.
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Coevolution in the computer: The necessity and use of distributed code systems. Contact: gk cfhext. Life-like computing beyond the machine metaphor. In: R. Paton [ed. London: Chapman and Hall. Contact: gk cfnext. Kauffman, Stuart A. The origins of order, self-organization and selection in evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kerem, Bat-sheva, Johanna M. Rommens, Janet A.
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Denton, , p. Taking this word-transformation analogy to an extreme, Denton argues that in the natural world, two higher taxa can be connected only by a sequence that contains non-functional intermediates, and that they can thus not be connected by evolutionary means at all.
Denton is attempting to use Cuvier's old argument about organisms being functional wholes, and having to change saltationally or not at all: Every organized being forms a whole, a unique, and perfect system, the parts of which mutually correspond and concur in the same definitive action by a reciprical reaction.
None of these parts can change without the whole changing. Cuvier, , p. Language, as strange as it may seem at first, is much more restricted with regards to function than biological organisms or even mechanical entities.
A small change in a word, such as adding an "x" to the end of it, will almost without fail destroy the whole meaning of the word; but a small change in a cow or a watch, such as decreasing slightly the length of a cow's hind legs or diminishing slightly the size of one cog in the watch, will not spell catastrophe.
In such a way, all of the cogs in a watch could change slightly, one at a time, eventually changing the entire configuration and sizes of the cogs, without destroying its function presuming watches can reproduce! One can even imagine nonfunctional digital components being added until they finally begin to work, at which point the gears, springs, and cogs will fade into nothingness.
Denton, I suspect, would reply to this that yes, the word-transformation analogy is awkward, but that it applies at some level of biological change. It would not prevent small scale anatomical changes, but it certainly would prevent large ones, even through small steps. But since we have shown that small steps are possible, what is to ever stop these small steps from continuing until they have overhauled the organism entirely, as I noted in the windup-to-digital watch transition?
To demonstrate that the "limits of biological change" as some creationists refer to it are nonexistent, let me list a few examples of observed major structural change from the biological literature. Consider, first, the wildly varying plants of the genus Brassica broccoli, cauliflower, cabbages, kale, and brussel sprouts , which have been derived through artificial selection from a single species of wild mustard Campbell, , p.
Anyone who has compared kale with brussel sprouts can see that their structures are extremely different. Bernard can be connected only by saltations? If such profound change can occur and speciation does, as Denton conceded, occur, then what is to theoretically stop a remote ancestor from evolving into all of the primates?
What is theoretically to stop an ancient ungulate from evolving into a whale, or an ancient fish into an amphibian? The fossil record, as we will see later on, provides even more evidence for major structural change, both in skeletal and soft organ characteristics. Yet Denton persists: While sentences, machines, and other sorts of complex systems can undergo a certain degree of gradual functional change, there is invariably a limit beyond which the system cannot undergo further gradual change.
To cross as it were from one "type" to another necessitates a relatively massive reorganization involving the redesign or respecification of all or most of the interacting component subsystems. Systems can undergo gradual microevolution through a succession of minor changes in their component structures but macro-evolution invariably involves a sudden "saltational" change.
Rather, he seems to be taking as self-evident the assertions of Cuvier. Denton does discuss at great length in Chapters 9 and 14 some of the more complex organs in various vertebrates, such as the avian pulmonary system and its lack of a remote counterpart among the reptiles, but these long discussions seem to amount to little more than saying: "We haven't told an evolutionary story for it yet, and it seems difficult to me to believe that such a story could exist, therefore there is not one.
Dawkins notes as well as any evolutionist that "anti- evolution propaganda is full of alleged examples of complex systems that 'could not possibly' have passed through a gradual series of intermediates" Dawkins, , p. Perhaps if more evolutionary theorists were around, we would have accounts about every single structure Denton could incredulously point to. But Denton really should be able to formulate such stories himself. The point is, pointing out how impossible it seems, at first glance, for a structure to have evolved gradually, does not constitute evidence that gradual macroevolution is impossible or improbable - it says something rather about one's failure to give hard thought to the possible means whereby complex structures could be generated.
At the molecular level, Denton discredits himself by quoting Emile Zuckerkandl to show that "it is now generally conceded by protein chemists that most functional proteins would be difficult to reach or interconvert through a series of successive individual amino acid mutations" Denton, , p.
Zuckerkandl's quote Zuckerkandl, , p.
By Zuckerkandl's analysis, most advanced functional proteins cannot interconvert directly, and cannot be reached by some saltational mechanisms, but that they certainly can each be reached through gradual evolution from a common ancestor. Denton seems to harbor much personal confusion about what non-saltational evolution actually is, and it is from this confusion that another one of his erroneous claims against evolution derives.
He believes evolution is a random search process, that somehow mutation plus natural selection yields results about as random as macromutation: Ultimately, Darwin's theory implied that all evolution had come about by the interactions of two basic processes, random mutation and natural selection, and it meant that the ends arrived at were entirely the result of a succession of chance events. Evolution by natural selection is therefore, in essence, strictly analogous to problem solving by trial and error, and it leads to the immense claim that all the design in the biosphere is ultimately the fortuitous outcome of an entirely blind random process - a giant lottery.
To illustrate, we will examine a modern variant of Cuvier's "animal space", a multi-dimensional space in which all possible phenotypes exist, and are arranged next to one another according to the amount of difference between their genotypes this is a very high-dimensional space, as anyone familiar with the number of genes and number of alleles per gene in a typical organism well knows. Absolutely nonfunctional phenotypes - ones that will not survive in any environment - are represented as blank spaces.
Now take a functional point A and a functional point B that are separated by a few hundred thousand points in this space. The probability of a macromutation, which is somewhat like making a lottery drawing although not exactly , changing A to B is astronomically small.
Likewise the probability of A changing stepwise to B through a series of random events, is astronomically small. Denton seems to think that stepwise evolution is like the latter. But this is not so. It is probable that one mutant of A will be a functional point closer to B. If this descendant is selected for, it will have a large number of descendants, whose gametes will undergo the same rate of mutation, making it extremely likely that another functional point closer to B will be produced.
Without natural selection, the process would be random, and a connection from A to B would require an extremely improbable sequence of events to occur. But if thousands, hundreds of thousands, or millions of mutants are created at each locus, and selective pressures choose those forms that are closer to B, then it is virtually inevitable that B will arise.
This scheme is a bit simplistic, because it assumes a constant environment and constant selective forces, making the result almost teleological in character, which is not an accurate account of evolutionary processes. In actuality, the environment fluctuates, so selective pressures vary constantly, and lifeforms must constantly change to keep up.
In a fluctuating environment, it is less probable that a path will be traced to B. But this is hardly a problem, because evolution is not teleological.
Nothing in evolution says that Homo sapiens had to arise from the long march from bacteria, or that it was even probable that it would arise.
But even in a fluctuating environment, it is clear that we could expect something very structurally different and reproductively isolated from A to eventually arise. As Carl Sagan likes to point out, without whatever fortuitous cataclysm caused the downfall of the dinosaurs, there might be intelligent lizards - instead of us - around now pondering the stars and wondering where they came from. To repeat, nothing in evolution claims that the history of life had to unravel exactly the way it did, but evolution is by the far the best, and certainly a plausible, explanation of why life did in fact develop as it did.
The predictive power of evolution at the macro-level is low, but the retrodictive, explanatory power of evolution is immense. And to summarize then, it is clear that Denton completely mischaracterizes evolutionary processes when he refers to them as matters of blind chance.Denton is more resourceful in his attack on anatomical similarities. Ho that you refer a lot can be located. Denton, Michael. Nature of Genetic Code. Hardcover Brand: