INDIAN LITERATURE PDF
Indian English Literature refers to the body of works by authors in. India who write in English and whose native or co-native language could be one of the. INDIAN LITERATURE. BY. M. WINTERNITZ. νοΙ ΙΙΣ, PART 1. (CLASSICAL SANSKRIT LITEKATI'RE). TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN WITH ADDITIONS. root and brief literary history of Indian writing in English and the genre – novel Indian English Literature refers to the body of work by writers in India who write.
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Views 45MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Jyotihsastra: Astral and mathematical literature (A History of Indian literature) · Read more. THE CONCEPT OF INDIAN LITERATURE. At the invitation of the Bangalore University in , Gokak delivered a series of lectures dealing with the concept of. Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until and in Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Along with Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam, he was one of the key figures of modern Bengali poetry, despite the fact that most of his works had been in publication posthumously.
A History of Indian Literature. Vol. I
During his life, his poems were not widely circulated, but after his death his reputation grew to the extent that he became one of the most popular Bengali poet of the 20th century. Bengali is the second most commonly spoken language in India after Hindi. As a result of the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th and 20th centuries, many of India's most famous, and relatively recent, literature, poetry, and songs are in Bengali. In the history of Bengali literature there has been only one pathbreaking literary movement by a group of poets and artists who called themselves Hungryalists.
Literature in Chhattisgarh reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India.
In the 20th century, several Indian writers have distinguished themselves not only in traditional Indian languages but also in English, a language inherited from the British. As a result of British colonisation, India has developed its own unique dialect of English known as Indian English. Indian English typically follows British spelling and pronunciation as opposed to American, and books published in India reflect this phenomenon.
Indian English literature, however, tends to utilise more internationally recognisable vocabulary then does colloquial Indian English, in the same way that American English literature does so as compared to American slang. India's only Nobel laureate in literature was the Bengali writer Rabindranath Tagore , who wrote some of his work originally in English, and did some of his own English translations from Bengali.
India's best selling English-language novelists of all-time are the contemporary writers like Chetan Bhagat , Manjiri Prabhu and Ashok Banker. More recent major writers in English who are either Indian or of Indian origin and derive much inspiration from Indian themes are R. In category of Indian writing in English is poetry. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and was responsible for the translations of his own work into English.
In the s, the Writers Workshop collective in Calcutta was founded by the poet and essayist P. Lal to advocate and publish Indian writing in English.
The press was the first to publish Pritish Nandy , Sasthi Brata , and others; it continues to this day to provide a forum for English writing in India. In modern times, Indian poetry in English was typified by two very different poets. Dom Moraes , winner of the Hawthornden Prize at the age of 19 for his first book of poems A Beginning went on to occupy a pre-eminent position among Indian poets writing in English. Nissim Ezekiel , who came from India's tiny Bene Israel Jewish community, created a voice and place for Indian poets writing in English and championed their work.
Lal and Kamala Das among several others. Younger generations of poets writing in English include G. Naik and Vivekanand Jha among others.
A generation of exiles also sprang from the Indian diaspora. In recent years, English-language writers of Indian origin are being published in the West at an increasing rate. Hindi literature started as religious and philosophical poetry in medieval periods in dialects like Avadhi and Brij.
The most famous figures from this period are Kabir and Tulsidas. In modern times, the Khariboli dialect became more prominent than Sanskrit. Chandrakanta , written by Devaki Nandan Khatri , is considered to be the first work of prose in Hindi. Munshi Premchand was the most famous Hindi novelist. Gujarati literature's history may be traced to AD. Since then literature has flourished till date. The folk form of literature began earlier than any other literature in Kannada.
It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardize various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the 6th century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of CE.
An early extant prose work, the Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya of CE provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola. Since the earliest available Kannada work is one on grammar and a guide of sorts to unify existing variants of Kannada grammar and literary styles, it can be safely assumed that literature in Kannada must have started several centuries earlier. He also wrote " Adipurana ".
Other famous poets like Ponna wrote "shantinatapurana", "Bhuvanaikaramabhyudaya", "Jinaksharamale",and "gatapratyagata". Ranna wrote "Shantipurana" and "Ghadayudha". The jain poet Nagavarma 2 wrote "Kavyavalokana", "Karnatabhashabhushana" and "Vardhamanapurana".
Janna was the author of "Yashodhara Charitha". Rudhrabhatta and Durgashima wrote "Jagannatha Vijaya" and "Panchatantra" respectively.
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The works of the medieval period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature.
Vachanas were pithy comments on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Kumara Vyasa , who wrote the Karnata Bharata Katamanjari , has arguably been the most famous and most influential Kannada writer of the 15th century.
The Bhakti movement gave rise to Dasa Sahitya around the 15th century which significantly contributed to the evolution of Carnatic music in its present form. Modern Kannada in the 20th century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya , Navya , Navyottara , Dalita and Bandaya. Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Works of Kannada literature have received Eight Jnanpith awards , which is the highest number awarded for the literature in any Indian language.
It has also received forty-seven Sahitya Academy awards. When Kodava was written, it was usually with Kannada script, sometimes with minor modifications.
The language had no significant written literature until the twentieth century. Appachcha Kavi, a playwright, and Nadikerianda Chinnappa, a folk compiler, are the two important poets and writers of the Kodava language. Konkani Literature. Konkani is a language with a complex and much-contested history.
It is one of the few Indian languages to be written in five scripts—Roman, Nagari, Kannada, Persian-Arabic and Malayalam-and also has an extensive oral literature.
Even up to years since the start of the Malayalam calendar which commenced in AD, Malayalam literature remained in preliminary stage. During this time, Malayalam literature consisted mainly of various genres of songs. Ramacharitham written by Cheeramakavi is a collection of poems written at the end of preliminary stage in Malayalam literature's evolution, and is the oldest Malayalam book available. Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan 17th century is considered as the Father of the Malayalam language , because of his influence on the acceptance of the Malayalam alphabet and his extremely popular poetic works like Adhyathmaramayanam.
Several noted works were written during the 19th century, but it was in the 20th century the Malayalam literary movement came to prominence. Malayalam literature flourished under various genres and today it is a fully developed part of Indian literature. Meitei literature is literature written in the Meitei language Manipuri, Meiteilon , including literature composed in Meitei by writers from Manipur, Assam, Tripura, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
The history of Meitei literature can be traced back to thousands of years with the flourish of Meitei civilization. Despite massive devastation and the burning of Meitei scriptures, such as the Puya Meithaba, Meitei literature survived.
The resilience that Meiteis would demonstrate in the event of devastation proves their ability to survive throughout history. Most of the early literary works found in Meitei literature were in poetry and prose or a combination of both. One of the most famous Meitei writers of the twentieth century is M.
Binodini Devi. Marathi literature began with saint-poets like Dnyaneshwar , Tukaram , Ramdas , and Eknath. Modern Marathi literature was marked by a theme of social reform. Well-known figures from this phase include Mahatma Jyotiba Phule , Lokhitwadi , and others. Though the earliest known Marathi inscription found at the foot of the statue at Shravanabelgola in Karnataka is dated c.
Mahanubhava saints used prose as their main medium, while Warkari saints preferred poetry as the medium. The early saint-poets were Mukundaraj who wrote Vivekasindhu, Dnyaneshwar — who wrote Amrutanubhav and Bhawarthadeepika, which is popularly known as Dnyaneshwari, a couplets long commentary on the Bhagavad Gita and Namdev.
They were followed by the Warkari saint-poet Eknath — Mukteswar translated the great epic Mahabharata into Marathi.
A History of Indian Literature Part-3.pdf
Social reformers like saint-poet Tukaram transformed Marathi into an enriched literary language. Ramdas's — Dasbodh and Manache Shlok are well-known products of this tradition. However, the most versatile and voluminous writer among the poets was Moropanta — whose Mahabharata was the first epic poem in Marathi.
The historical section of the old Marathi literature was unique as it contained both prose and poetry. The prose section contained the Bakhars that were written after the foundation of the Maratha kingdom by Shivaji.
The poetry section contained the Povadas and the Katavas composed by the Shahirs. The period from to is regarded as the closing period of the Old Marathi literature and the beginning of the Modern Marathi literature. The period of the late 19th century in Maharashtra is the period of colonial modernity. Like the corresponding periods in the other Indian languages, this was the period dominated by the English educated intellectuals.
It was the age of prose and reason. It was the period of reformist didacticism and a great intellectual ferment. The first English book was translated in Marathi in The first Marathi newspaper started in Lokmanya Tilak's newspaper Kesari, set up in , provided a platform for sharing literary views.
Marathi at this time was efficiently aided by Marathi Drama. Here, there also was a different genre called 'Sangit Natya' or musicals. The first play was V. Bhave's Sita Swayamvar in Later Kirioskar —85 and G. Deval l6 brought a romantic aroma and social content. The drama flourished in the s and 70s with few of the best Indian actors available to take on a variety of protagonists. This drama movement was ably supported by Marathi films which did not enjoy a continuous success.
Starting with V. Shantaram and before him the pioneer DadaSaheb Phalke, Marathi cinema went on to influence contemporary Hindi cinema. Madgulkar and actor Raja Gosavi came together to give quite a few hits in later period.
Marathi language as spoken by people here was throughout influenced by drama and cinema along with contemporary literature. Modern Marathi poetry began with Mahatma Jyotiba Phule's compositions. It was largely sentimental and lyrical. Prahlad Keshav Atre, the renowned satirist and a politician wrote a parody of this sort of poetry in his collection Jhenduchi Phule. Sane Guruji — contributed to the children's literature in Marathi.
He translated and simplified many Western classics and published them in a book of stories titled Gode Goshti Sweet Stories. It has undergone a considerable change in the 20th century. The language developed mainly from the Lushai language , with significant influence from Pawi language , Paite language and Hmar language , especially at the literary level. However, there was unwritten secular literature in the form of folktales, war chants etc.
And there was rich religious literature in the form of sacerdotal chants. This article is about the written literature. Odia language literary history started with the charyapadas written in the 8th century AD. Odia has a rich literary heritage, the medieval period dating back to the 13th century.
Sarala Dasa who lived in the 14th century is known as the Vyasa of Odisha. He translated the Mahabharata into Odia.
In fact the language was initially standardized through a process of translation of classical Sanskrit texts like the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Srimad Bhagabatam. Jagannatha Das translated the Srimad Bhagabatam into Odia and his translation standardized the written form of the language. Odia has had a strong tradition of poetry, especially that of devotional poetry. Odia language is replete in classisicm.
Various forms of poetry like champu, chhanda, bhajan, janan, poi, chautisha etc. Recently [ when? There was a time when Bengali tried to overpower odia language.
Along with Westbengal,Chattisgarh, Madhyapradesh and Andhrapradesh tookaway many parts of Odisha letting odisha into nothingness and despair. Mostly the bengalis claimed that odia is the derived form of bengali and so the language cannot independently exist.
But they were unaware of the fact that Odia language is older than bengali and even one of the oldest languages in the World. It is one of the classical languages. Due to the immense contributions and sacrifices of pioneers like Fakirmohan senapati, Gopabandhu Das, Madhusudan Das, Nilakantha Das, Gourishankar Ray, Maharaja krushnachandra Gajapati and many more, Odisha and odia language got back its special identity and has stood tall among the best in the country.
The state Odisha and the language odia that you see today has evolved through lots of contributions and sacrifices. The history of Punjabi literature starts with advent of Aryan in Punjab. Punjab provided them the perfect environment in which to compose the ancient texts.
The Rig-Veda is first example in which references are made to the rivers, flora and fauna of Punjab. The Punjabi literary tradition is generally conceived to commence with Fariduddin Ganjshakar — Farid's mostly spiritual and devotional verse were compiled after his death in the Adi Granth. The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak — , are early examples of Punjabi prose literature. Nanak himself composed Punjabi verse incorporating vocabulary from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other Indic languages as characteristic of the Gurbani tradition.
In contrast to Persian poets who had preferred the ghazal for poetic expression, Punjabi Sufi poets tended to compose in the Kafi. Punjabi Sufi poetry also influenced other Punjabi literary traditions particularly the Punjabi Qissa, a genre of romantic tragedy which also derived inspiration from Indic, Persian and Qur'anic sources. The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during colonial rule.
Vinay Dharwadker and A. Ramanujan, ed. The translations make elegant reading in modern English and the work as a whole will help to contextualize the work of poets writing in English. Amit Chaudhuri, ed. A wide-ranging anthology, mostly prose, covering mid nineteenth-century to contemporary literature; with substantial inclusions from other Indian languages, particularly Bengali. Fiction: We will agree fiction titles at the start of the course depending on the interests and prior knowledge of the group.
A generation of exiles also sprang from the Indian diaspora. In modern times, Indian poetry in English was typified by two very different poets. Dom Moraes, winner of the Hawthornden Prize at the age of 19 for his first book of poems A Beginning went on to occupy a pre-eminent position among Indian poets writing in English. Nissim Ezekiel, who came from India's tiny Bene Israel Jewish community, created a voice and place for Indian poets writing in English and championed their work.
Alternative writing India's experimental and avant garde counterculture is symbolized in the Prakalpana Movement. During the last four decades this bilingual literary movement has included Richard Kostelanetz, John M. Vattacharja Chandan is a central figure who contrived the movement. An example of a Prakalpana work is Chandan's bilingual Cosmosphere 1 Some bilingual writers have also made significant contributions, such as Paigham Afaqui with his novel Makaan in Shripad Krishnarao Vaidya born on 05th May, from Maharashtra, India has created a record by writing a Poetry book with the longest title.
This book has title in words. It was published on 28th March, The title of this book is grammatically correct and makes a sense about the theme of the book. May, from Maharashtra, India has created a record by writing a Poetry book with the longest title. Environmentalist-poet eyes Guinness record - Times Of India articles. References Haq, Kaiser ed. Contemporary Indian Poetry. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, Haq, Rubana ed. Kolkata: Writers Workshop, Hoskote, Ranjit ed.
King, Bruce Alvin. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, , rev.
Madras: Oxford University Press, Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna ed. Calcutta: Oxford University Press, A History of Indian Literature in English. New York: Columbia University Press, Parthasarathy, R.During censorship, most of the nation's domestic dailies gave up the battle for press freedom.
The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature. Marathi language as spoken by people here was throughout influenced by drama and cinema along with contemporary literature. In contemporary Indian literature, there are two major literary awards; these are the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Award. He therefore argues that to speak of an Indian literature in the singular is problematic.
The fundamental rights of the Indian people were suspended, and strict controls were imposed on freedom of speech and press. Journalism played an important role in making educated Indians aware of their rights. This article is about the written literature. Odia has a rich literary heritage, the medieval period dating back to the 13th century.
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