LACTIC ACID BACTERIA BOOK
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of related micro-organisms that are enormously important in the food and beverage industries. About this book. The Lactic Acid Bacteria is planned as a series in a number of volumes, and the interest shown in it appears to justify a cautious optimism that a . Since the publication of the third edition of Lactic Acid Bacteria: this book is ideal as an introduction to the field and as a handbook for.
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"Lactic Acid Bacteria - R&D for Food, Health & Livestock Purposes" is a Books open for chapter submissions Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter-Cultures for Cheese Processing: Past, Present and Future Developments. Lactic Acid BacteriaR & D for Food, Health and Livestock PurposesEdited by J. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widespread microorganisms which can be found in We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. This book represents a broad review of current lactic acid bacteria research with contributions from a number of well-known scientists. The work encompasses a.
By Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk. By Diana I. By Charina Gracia B. Banaay, Marilen P. Balolong and Francisco B. By Sanna Taskila and Heikki Ojamo. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method. Edited by Varaprasad Bobbarala.
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Marcelino Kongo University of the Azores , Portugal. Marcelino Kongo. January 30th DOI: Marcelino Kongo Open access peer-reviewed 2. Bardowski Open access peer-reviewed 3. Redox Potential: Cachon Open access peer-reviewed 4. Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotics: Probiotics and Intestinal Microbiota: Rossi Open access peer-reviewed Bifidobacterium in Human GI Tract: In addition, the selection of LAB starter cultures for sausage production must not have amino decarboxylase activity.
Otherwise, biogenic amines will be produced in foods, such as histamine, tryptamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and phenylethylamine which have toxic effects [ ].
LAB fermentation of vegetables can be achieved due to the presence of carbohydrates. Usually fermented vegetable juices are produced from cabbage, red beet, carrot, celery and tomato [ 18 , ].
Also, LAB play an important role in pickles and table olives fermentation, affecting the final flavour and shelf-life [ , ]. Ensiling is a traditional method of preserving forages and is widely used all over the world. It is based on natural fermentation, where LAB ferment water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids, mainly lactic acid or acetic and formic acids, under anaerobic conditions.
Inoculation of LAB is often used as silage additive to enhance lactic acid fermentation [ 18 ]. This results in decreasing pH, inhibiting detrimental anaerobes and preserving the nutritional value and palatability of the forage [ , ].
Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects, Fourth Edition
Feeding ruminants with silages that have been treated with LAB beyond improving their performance, it is believed to induce probiotic effects [ ].
LAB derived probiotic bacteria display a wide range of antimicrobial activities. Some strains of LAB produce non specific antimicrobial substances short chain fatty acids, hydrogen peroxide while others produce toxins bacteriosins, bacteriosin-like components [ ]. Short chain fatty acids formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids which are produced during the anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, decrease the pH. It has been considered that these acids are responsible for the domination of mucosal ecosystems by LAB [ ].
Also, hydrogen peroxide inhibits the growth of pathogens [ ]. Most of bacteriocins originating by Gram positive bacteria are produced from LAB.
They are proteins that have bacteriocidal activity against species closely related to the bacteriocin producing strains, which could be applied in food preservation and health care [ , ]. Traditionally bacteriocin production has been considered an important characteristic in the selection of probiotic strains, while nowadays it is considered that they may function within the gastrointestinal tract [ ], perhaps as alternatives to antibiotics for medical and veterinary use [ ].
Generally bacteriocins are cationic peptides which display hydrophobic or amphilitic properties and usually the bacterial membrane is the target for their action [ ].
The majority of bacteriocin produced by LAB are distinguished from classical antibiotics because: Bacteriocins according to their structure and characteristics can be classified mainly in the following classes:. Class I lantibiotics , small peptides [ ]. Class II, small heat-stable proteins which are further divided into subclasses such as IIa pediocin-like bacteriocins and IIb two peptite bacteriocins [ ]. Class III helveticin [ ].
Bacteriocins mainly produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus have strong antimicrobial capacity against various food pathogens [ ]. Bacteriocins can act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic, a distinction which is strongly dependent on bacteriocin dose and degree of purification, physiological state of the indicator cells and experimental conditions such as incubation temperature, pH, presence of agents disrupting cell wall integrity, etc [ , ].
LAB derived bacteriocins are suitable to use as food preservatives due to their characteristics: Some benefits of the use of bacteriocins as food preservatives are: Nicin lantibiotic — class I is the first bacteriosin produced by LAB Lactococcus lactis whilst today it is used in many countries as biopreservatives in foods [ ]. Nicins have a dual mode of action: This substance may protect mothers from mastitis and infants from toxication by pathogenic skin flora like Staphylococcus aureus [ ].
There are at least three ways in which bacteriocins can be incorporated into a food to ameliorate its safety: Additionally, bacteriocin production can contribute to the probiotic functionality of intestinal LAB, while in certain cases may be directly responsible for it, with respect to either beneficially modulating the gut microbiota or inhibiting some gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria [ 30 ].
Consequently bacteriocins, derived from LAB can cover a broad field of applications, including the food industry and the medical sector, mainly in combination with other treatments to increase their effectiveness in humans and animals [ ]. In the latter, bacteriocins can be used as growth promoters, instead of antibiotics, which have been banned in the European Union since [ ].
Human life cannot exist without vitamins, because they are involved in essential functions e. Humans cannot synthesize most of these vitamins, although it is well known that some intestinal bacteria like LAB can produce some vitamins folate, vitamin B 12 or cobalamin, vitamin K 2 or menaguino, riboflavin and thiamine [ , ].
The gut microbiota has been recognized as a source of some water-soluble vitamins, while such vitamins have also been reported as results of the LAB fermentation in yogurt, cheeses and other fermented foods.
Folate is the term used to describe the folic acid derivatives, such as the folyl glutamates which are naturally present in foods and folic acid that is the chemically synthesized form of folate, commonly used for food fortification and nutritional supplements. Folate belongs to the B-group of vitamins and participates in many metabolic pathways like the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA and the inter-conversions of amino acids.
Moreover, folate possesses antioxidant capacity that protects the genome by preventing free radical hack of DNA [ ]. Dietary folate is essential for humans, since it cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells. LAB having the ability to produce folate belong to the Lactobacillus spp L.
Nevertheless, some lactobacilli strains L. Furthermore, it has been reported that some starter cultures and probiotic lactobacillus strains in non-dairy foods utilize more folate than they produce [ , ]. Vitamin B 12 or cobalamin is required for the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates [ ].
Vitamin B 12 cannot be synthesized by mammals and must be obtained from exogenous sources like foods or the intestinal microbiota [ ]. It has been reported that among the microorganisms some members of the Lactobacillus spp have the ability to produce this vitamin.
In particular a probiotic strain of L. Vitamin B 12 deficiency can cause various pathological disorders that affect the haematopoietic pernicious anaemia , nervous and cardiovascular system.
Furthermore, this deficiency in male animal models influenced the number of offspring which showed growth retardation and decrease in some blood parameters [ ].
Vitamin K is involved in blood clotting, tissue calcification, atherosclerotic plaque and bones and kidneys function [ ]. Vitamin K is present as phylloquinone Vitamin K 1 in green plants and as menaquinone K 2 produced by some intestinal bacteria, like LAB and especially strains of the genera Lactococcus , Lactobacillus , Enterococcus , Leuconostoc and Streptococcus [ ].
Vitamin K deficiency has been involved in some clinical disorders like intracranial hemorrhage in newborn infants and possible bone fracture resulting from osteoporosis [ ]. LAB producing menoquinone could be useful to supplement vitamin K requirements in humans [ ]. Riboflavin or vitamin B 2 is necessary in cellular metabolism, being the precursor of coenzymes acting as hydrogen carriers in biological redox reactions [ ].
Although, riboflavin is present in many foods such as dairy products, meat, eggs, green vegetables, its deficiency occurs with damages in the liver, skin and changes in the brain glucose metabolism [ , ], with symptoms like hyperaemia, sore throat, odema of oral and mucous membranes, cheilosis and glossitis [ ].
Currently, riboflavin-producing LAB strains were isolated and used as a convenient biotechnological application for the preparation of bread fermented sourdough and pasta to enrich them with vitamin B 2 [ ]. LAB possess an extensive collection of enzymes many of which have the potential to influence the composition and the processing, organoleptic properties and quality of foods and feeds.
LAB release various enzymes into the gastrointestinal tract and exert potential synergistic effects on digestion and alleviate symptoms of intestinal malabsorption [ ].
In other cases these organisms may serve as a source for the preparation of enzyme extracts that are able to function under the environmental conditions of fermentation [ ].
The enzymatic activity has been studied mainly in LAB isolated from wine or other fermented foods like cheeses and yoghurt [ , ]. Species of Lactococcus and Pediococcus are the LAB most commonly associated with fermented foods [ ]. The LAB produced enzymes and in particular amylases which are the most stable can be used in sourdough technology for the natural improvement of bread texture [ ]. Moreover, LAB contribute to the aroma and flavor of fermented foods.
Certain peptidases produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. In addition, proteolysis and lipolysis may enhance the flavour of most varieties of cheese [ ].
LAB strains isolated from a traditional Spanish Genestoso cheese were evaluated for the enzymatic activity and it was reported that dipeptidase activity of high level was found for Lactococcus spp , enterolytic activity was detected for Enterococcus spp. Also, enzymes play an important role in winemaking. Wine flavor and aroma apart from aromas originating in grapes and alcoholic fermentation, is derived mainly from the activity of the LAB, through the action of their enzymes.
These bacteria grow in wine during malolactic fermentation, following alcoholic fermentation, while a broad range of secondary modifications improve the taste and flavor of wine [ ]. A number of LAB can produce a variety of long chain sugar polymers, called exopolysaccharides EPS which are mainly employed for the production of fermented dairy products.
They are synthesized either extracellularly from sucrose by glycansucrases or intracellularly by glycosyltransferases from sugar nucleotide precursors [ ]. These EPS can be classified according to their chemical composition and biosynthesis mechanism as homopolysaccharides, consisting of a single type of monosaccharide and heteropolysaccharides consisting of repeating units of two or more types of monosaccharides, substituted monosaccharides and other units like phosphate, acetyl and glycerol [ - ].
Homopolysaccharides are further divided into fructans including levan and inuline-type and glucans including dextran, mutan, alteran and b-1, 3 glucan [ ].
On the other hand, heteropolysaccharides demonstrate little structural similarity to one another. Their production is influenced by the bacterial growth, phase, medium composition carbon and nitrogen source , pH and temperature [ ]. They can be produced by Lactococcus spp. Homopolysaccharides can be introduced in sourdough products, influencing the structural quality and backing ability in bakery products, while heteropolysaccharides are used as food additives in dairy products [ ].
EPS contribute to the organoleptic quality of the fermented foods, in texture, taste perception, mouth-feel and stability [ , ]. The above researchers reported that there is no information about the effects of bacterial EPS in non-dairy foods, such as meat products, sauerkraut and vinegar. Although EPS are tasteless, they prolong the time that the milk product spends in the mouth, enhancing its delicacy through an improved volatilization of the intrinsic flavors [ , ]. EPS can improve the rheology of fermented foods viscosity and elasticity as natural biothickeners, emulsifiers, gelling agents and physical stabilizers to bind water and limit syneresis [ , ].
In particular commercial products like LAB dextran could be utilized apart from foods in gel filtration products, in the pharmaceutical industry, as blood volume expander and flow improver, in chemistry as paper and metal plating processes, in enhanced oil recovery and in chromographic media. Furthermore, levan can find use in the food industry as biothickener, while alteran as low-viscocity factor, extender, etc [ , , ].
Additionally, EPS may produce oligosaccharides having prebiotic properties that could find important applications in functional foods [ ]. The successful application of EPS in the manufacture of fermented milks is determined by the ability to bind water, interact with proteins and increase the viscosity of the milk serum phase [ ]. Although, many LAB strains are able to produce EPS, their yield is low [ ] and their industrial applications for the improvement of the properties of food products are limited [ ].
Lactic acid bacteria
These benefits are detectable at very low concentrations [ ]. The EPS due to their increased viscosity in foods may remain for longer time in the gastrointestinal tract and therefore be beneficial to the transient colonization by probiotic bacteria [ , ]. Another health benefit is the generation of short chain fatty acids by colonic microflora degradation in the gut.
Several of these fatty acids are possibly involved in the prevention of colon cancer [ , ]. In addition, LAB synthesized EPS appear to have anti-tumor, anti-ulcer, immuno-modulating and cholesterol-lowering activity [ ]. The EPS used in the industry represent only a small fraction of the biopolymers used. The reasons are their economical production which needs a global knowledge of their biosynthesis and an adapted bioprocess technology [ ]. Moreover, large scale production of LAB derived EPS is low, since LAB being anaerobes, are relatively inefficient in converting energy from carbohydrates, compared to aerobes [ , ].
So this technological barrier must be overcome for cost effective production of EPS. Furthermore, the genetic instability of EPS production is a problem to industrial applications, resulting in loss or reduction of production or change in the composition of EPS [ ].
However, for such production of EPS legal approval and the acceptance by the consumers and the food industries are required [ , ]. However, if these biomolecules are to be developed commercially, they must be cost effective. In some circumstances EPS cause food spoilage. For instance during the fermentation of wine or cider the final products receive undesirable properties. The EPS synthesis is responsible for dental plaque that results in dental caries.
Moreover, the accumulation of EPS cause many technical and hygienic problems in the cheese and milk industries [ , ]. Manitol, sorbitol, xylitol, tagatose and thehalose are sweeteners produced by LAB. These substances are polyols, i.
They can be incorporated directly to foods or be produced in the food by LAB, leading to the production of foods containing such sweeteners [ ]. Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus spp.
Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria: Current Progress in Advanced Research | Book
A number of health benefits have been attributed to these LAB produced low calories sweeteners, like low glycemic index, osmotic diuretics, weight control, antiplaque, prebiotic.
These GRAS substances could be used especially by children, diabetic patients and weight watchers [ , ]. They can be used in the diet of humans and animals, with particular role in their health status. Despite recent advances, the study of LAB and their functional ingredients is still an emerging field of research that has yet to realize its full potential. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.
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January 30th DOI: Introduction Lactic acid bacteria LAB are widespread microorganisms which can be found in any environment rich mainly in carbohydrates, such as plants, fermented foods and the mucosal surfaces of humans, terrestrial and marine animals.
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Mechanism of action of probiotics Probiotics have multiple and diverse effects on the host. The main mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria by which they improve mucosal defenses of the gastrointestinal tract include: Probiotics and health Functional properties of probiotics have been demonstrated for various therapeutic applications.
Helps to alleviate the symptoms of ulcerative colitis and atopic dermatitis. Reduces blood cholesterol. Effective against bacterial vaginosis flora 48 Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces the duration of diarrhea 49 Enterococcus faecium Can reduce blood cholesterol leading to decreased blood pressure Table 1.
Lactic acid bacteria derived probiotics and human health. Lactic acid bacteria as source of starter cultures 3. Starter cultures and functional starter cultures in fermentation of foods LAB for a long time have been applied as starter cultures in fermented foods and beverages, because they can improve nutritional, organoleptic, technological and shelf-life characteristics [ 83 , 84 ].
Probiotics as functional starter cultures A category of successful starter cultures are LAB produced probiotic cultures. Genus Application in dairy foods Application in non-dairy foods Lactobacillus spp Cultured dairy products, cheese, yoghurt, kefir Sausage, sourdough bread, fermented vegetables Lactococcus spp Cheese, butter milk sour cream, cultured dairy products - Leuconostoc spp Cheese, cultured dairy products, sour cream, buttermilk Fermented vegetables Streptococcus thermophilus Cheese, yoghurt - Pediococcus - Sausage, fermented vegetables Tetragenococcus - Soy sauce Oenococcus - Wine.
Table 2. Lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures in fermented foods. Functional starter cultures in fermented dairy products Traditionally, LAB have been used in the fermentation of dairy products, as a simple and safe way of preserving such foods. Functional starter cultures in fermented non-dairy products 3.
Fermented meat and meat products The preservation of meat and meat products by fermentation has been used from ancient times and it was based mainly on natural meat microorganisms. Fermented vegetables LAB fermentation of vegetables can be achieved due to the presence of carbohydrates. Starter cultures in silages Ensiling is a traditional method of preserving forages and is widely used all over the world.
Lactic acid bacteria as source of antimicrobial agents LAB derived probiotic bacteria display a wide range of antimicrobial activities. Bacteriocins according to their structure and characteristics can be classified mainly in the following classes: Traits of LAB derived bacteriocins LAB derived bacteriocins are suitable to use as food preservatives due to their characteristics: Lactic acid bacteria as source of vitamins Human life cannot exist without vitamins, because they are involved in essential functions e.
Lactic acid bacteria
Folate Folate is the term used to describe the folic acid derivatives, such as the folyl glutamates which are naturally present in foods and folic acid that is the chemically synthesized form of folate, commonly used for food fortification and nutritional supplements. Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12 or cobalamin is required for the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates [ ]. Vitamin K Vitamin K is involved in blood clotting, tissue calcification, atherosclerotic plaque and bones and kidneys function [ ].
Riboflavin Riboflavin or vitamin B 2 is necessary in cellular metabolism, being the precursor of coenzymes acting as hydrogen carriers in biological redox reactions [ ]. Lactic acid bacteria as source of enzymes LAB possess an extensive collection of enzymes many of which have the potential to influence the composition and the processing, organoleptic properties and quality of foods and feeds.
Lactic acid bacteria as source of exopolysaccharides 7. Definition and classification of exopolysaccharides A number of LAB can produce a variety of long chain sugar polymers, called exopolysaccharides EPS which are mainly employed for the production of fermented dairy products. Factors limiting the use of exopolysaccharides The EPS used in the industry represent only a small fraction of the biopolymers used.
Negative effects of exopolysaccharides In some circumstances EPS cause food spoilage. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Available from:.He is the author of over 90 journal articles and book chapters in the field of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Some lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Lactococcus lactis, construct a functional respiratory chain when a source of heme, an essential cofactor of cytochrome oxidases, is provided.
Antihypertensive Metabolites From Lactic Acid Bacteria Naoyuki Yamamoto Many studies have suggested milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria has beneficial effects on the health status of animals and humans.
The focus is on current knowledge of the stress physiology of LAB. All in all, I enjoyed reading this comprehensive book on stress responses of LAB.
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