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Abstract. This paper discusses the influence of Stephanie Meyer's Twilight in Indonesian young adult novels. Tuilet and E'pliss are full of references to Meyer's . The download ebook twilight bahasa indonesia pdf additional drawback will be to check our analysis received to want a musical scope vibrating your possible. Ulfa Warhamni, An Analysis of English - Indonesian Translation Procedure on. “ Twilight” Novel. Thesis. Jakarta: Faculty of Adab and Humanities, State Islamic.


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Muhammadiyah is considered modernizing and its base is urban Bryner, , p. These two groups, while initially representing different trends, today form a contrast against transnational Islamist organizations based in the Middle East Bryner, , p.

Arabization The origins of radical Islam in Indonesia might be traced back to the success of the coffee industry in the Minangkabau highlands which enabled many residents to hajj to Mecca, there coming in contact with Wahhabist ideology and bringing it home Brown , p. During the dictatorship period, Suharto initially repressed the Salafist organizations but eventually accepted their support as a means of shoring up his increasingly threatened regime Bryner, , p.

The large number of Indonesians who go abroad to work in the Gulf countries each year may be the most significant source of Arabization in Indonesia. About 2. For the working class, Islam provided new ways to create community in urban settings; Islam also provided a channel for protest. To the middle class, Islam provided a unifying set of values to stand in for ethnic traditions that were becoming irrelevant in the face of development.

Bryner, , p. In its weaker form it simply means the process of stopping identifying with: The phenomena of disidentification may have some part in understanding fear and rejection of Western culture and English language. K Some critics have wondered if there ever really was an educational crisis or was that how Anies rushed through the new curriculum Widarsa, ? But the groundwork for the change began while Muhammad Nuh was minister of education from under president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

Anies succeded Nuh in during the Joko Widodo presidency and began to implement the changes.

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Muhadjir Effendy in turn succeeded Anies as minister of education, it is suggested the appointment of Muhadjir was to appease Muhammadiyah, the second largest Muslim organization in Indonesia and who is a major stakeholder in educational policy Ompusunggu, Note the shift in weight of subjects between the mids curriculum and the Nationalist education and religion are greatly increased to the detriment of other subjects, Before and after K World data, , p. Elementary schools may include English through either the local context provision in the curriculum or as an extracurricular activity Lie, a, p.

The K is called a character-based curriculum Jazadi, , p. This can be seen in the top level competencies for grade 10 English which run as follows my translation , 1. Appreciate and practice religious teachings. Develop behavior Honesty, discipline, responsibility, care, courteousness, friendliness, environmental consciousness, mutual cooperation, love and peace Responsive and proactive.

Show an attitude of being part of the solution to various problems of the nation. Interact effectively with the environment, both social and natural. Stand as a reflection of the nation in association of the world. Understand and apply knowledge both factual, conceptual, and procedural in science, technology, art, culture, and humanities with humanitarian insight into nationality, state, and civilization-related phenomena and events, and applying to solve national problems.

Process and reasoning, in both the concrete and abstract realms to develop what has been studied at school independently using scientific method and rules. Show responsible behavior and care in responsively and proactively processing, reasoning, and proving information about the occurrence of problems related to the natural environment floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, etc.

Demonstrate disciplined behavior, and love peace expressed by using various idioms, proverbs, and poetic language…. Catch the main idea of hortatory texts and propose solutions to solve environmental problems in a hortatory text. Jazadi is an example of a character-based analysis of a story in government produced textbook Bahasa Inggris Kelas X Semester 1 in which a hired servant is living in a house with a successful business man and does kitchen work p.

He goes on to laments the failure of the government Center of Curriculum and Book publication to integrate the 18 character values at the school level into materials p. Materials Culture Content Textbooks are produced both by the Ministry of Education and by local private publishers to the specifications of the curriculum. As far as the treatment of culture goes, Lie reports that textbooks often treat pragmatics as a separate topic in the form of chapters rather than incorporated them in the four skills p.

Munandar and Ulwiyah analyzed the cultural content of six locally produced high school English textbooks published in Methodologically they distinguished between appearances of little-c culture, things like hairstyles and cuisine, and big-C culture, that is values. And even if it were possible to write English textbooks with no undesirable western values and only really desirable Indonesian ones, one wonders what the nature of such an English would be?

These foreign EFL materials are written for a global audience and contain little that might be considered insidious or offensive, except to those who are threatened by new ideas and who cling to very highly structured belief and value systems.

Purnell begins from 16 assumptions about cultural assessments including, a belief that cultures change, that cultures are not internally homogenous, that there are core similarities between cultures, that the analyst also has a culture, and that appreciating cultural factors is important to analyzing settings p.

This text appears overall to be heavy on grammar. Vocabulary tasks look to be the next most common content. Role plays, group work and individual tasks feature. Readings and activities based on text types are also a major part, as is common in many Indonesian EFL materials. Besides names and drawings of characters in the narratives, the content is otherwise generic and does not seem to contain loaded cultural content. Scaffolding Scaffolding: English for junior high school students, Grade VIII is a government textbook published before the K curriculum, but by report of informants continues to be widely used in Jakarta government schools.

There is also a glossary of grammatical and English classroom words like tougue twister, recount text and vowel; the book ends with an index. The photographs are of local people, appear to be amateur photography, hijabs appear.

Language structures and text types are integrated; in Chapter 1 for instance the grammar point is order of adjectives and the text type is lost and found adverts. There is quite a bit of text, the images are small and many are black and white, the overall impression of the textbook is that it is not as professionally designed as some international textbooks.

Each unit consists of a mixture of games, role plays, reading, comprehension exercises, grammar sheets, vocabulary matching activities and pair tasks. Local place names are throughout the book. The back cover has biographies of the authors in Indonesian. Bahasa Inggris For a more in-depth analysis of the student and teacher books of Bahasa Inggris: The text is government published to the K curriculum. Skills, content, and functions emphasized are oral communication, understanding various text types, appreciation of English as an international language, character development, environmental awareness, nationalism, international awareness and teen culture.

The learning-teaching strategies include discovery, group work, actively communicative tasks, roleplay, explanation, modeling, analyzing and deduction. There is no multi-media. There is no native- speaker audio content. Students use a notebook and return the textbook at the end of the grade.

The materials can be said to provide a syllabus and content for the course.

The syllabus shapes described in Christison and Murray that the material best aligns with is genre and text- based as this is the main organization of chapters and sub-sections, there are also structural, vocabulary, humanistic i. Islam is also mentioned multiple times in a biographical text on anti-Dutch Acehnese guerrilla fighter Cut Nyak Dhien Bk.

Other Indonesian cultural content includes the legend of Malin Kundang, information about an Indonesian pop-star who performs ballad-like love songs, Afgan, and includes Habibie, a president of the post-dictatorship period. English Teachers Competence and proficiency Numerous investigators have noted a very low level of competence of teachers.

Lie, a, p. Salaries in the non- and informal sector can be similar. Teacher Centeredness and CLT Marcellino observes that many teachers engage in an authoritative style of teaching, often of grammar p. Indonesia, according to Halim has a culture of dominant roles for teachers and docility for students p. Hence Marcellino believes the Indonesian culture values obedience, uncriticalness, and a belief that teachers know all and can do no wrong, creates students are apathetic, rarely ask questions and behave compliantly p.

Wachidah also sees respect and obedience as among the most important Indonesian values p. According to Passassung , this leads to quite rigid classroom structure p. These values presumably come from the home where children are seen but not heard Passassung, , p.

Teachers explain the international materials being authentic, error free, better looking, and more easily available as the reasons p. One is quoted as saying, I think materials for skill courses should be taken from English-speaking countries because of the close link between language and culture. If we use materials from Indonesia then we will only present Indonesian culture.

By using internationally- published materials students can be exposed to the culture of English-speaking people.

Zacharias, , p. Resistance to Change Many investigators, including Yulia , report significant disjuncture between the centrally produced curriculum and syllabus and what is in fact happening in the schools p. Passassung argues that the larger culture strongly controls what happens in learning environments; a complex interplay of cultural structure which is feudal and harmony seeking, the sociolinguistic situation, material conditions, and teaching methodology determine EFL teaching in ways that curriculum design and intention in Jakarta can have little influence on p.

Since most so-called international schools were really schools for the Indonesian elite, taught in English, the government enforced instruction in Indonesian, so only the small number of schools with only international students could avoid Indonesian instruction. Non-formal Under National Education System Law informal education such as tutoring and non-formal learning such as language institutes are also under the control of the Ministry of Education.

Unfortunately however, lack of organized and focused government policy for the non- formal sector means that very poor quality of education passes unregulated in the sector. Wexler contends this shows a failure on the part of the central authorities to understand the English course industry and its importance to the country.

Expulsion of foreign teachers is not a new phenomenon, in BC Rome expelled its Greek tutors for fear of their influence Kelly, Unfortunately the possibility of those teachers acting as cross-cultural ambassadors is lost. Rural Schools Indonesia is a developing country.

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Kristiansen and Pratikno found only 90 out of national districts had met the standard p. Religious Schools Many Indonesian students receive extensive religious education. Quality of education generally, and English specifically in madrasas is below that in MONE schools; madrasas are largely rural, small, and poorly financed by private funding Azkiyah, It is also a major source of Arabization. Al Azhar, which is based in Egypt, under various umbrella organizations, runs Islam integrated schools Bryner, , boarding schools and Al Azhar university Yayasan, in Indonesia.

On another occasion, he informed his mother that women were forbidden to wear trousers, which his mother frequently did. Al Faruq took overall a very exact view of transliteration, so that in his system many diacritics are imported into Roman script.

This is the opposite view to Mujahid who suggests as much as possible to use Arabic terms but to be willing to use existing forms even if corrupted, and generally attempt to conform to standard English conventions.

He suggests for instance that plurals should use the English form and not the Arabic so more than one Muslim becomes Muslims, not Muslimat; he further gives advice for common questions Muslims using English will likely have like using SWT and PBUH and Islamic greetings and blessings in English.

Iqbal sees the overall goal of an Islamic English as follows, it is this need that calls for a concerted effort to develop English as an "Islamic language," suitable to render key Islamic concepts into English without having to use excessive italicization, transliteration, or explanatory notes.

One way to do this is through a massive infusion of Arabic terms into English.

This is how other languages were made "Islamic" and how English has already started to become a suitable language for Islamic texts: When Islam came to Persia, there was already a conceptually rich religious structure to the language. Thus when the Persians first started to use the word "khuda" for Allah, they had to dissociate their new Qur'anic concepts of God from their prior beliefs, reconfiguring the semantic map of Persian.

It took time and effort, but three generations later no Persian-speaking Muslim had to struggle with discursive schizophrenia: He goes on, Given the unsurpassable hiatus between the Divine language of the Qur'an and conventional human discourse, it remains impossible to adopt an equivalence model of translation for rendering the Qur'an in any language. The same applies, to a lesser extent, when rendering isolated Qur'anic terms.

If translations of such terms are not to lose their richness in the process, they must simultaneously transform the semantic structures of the receiving language--as was successfully done in the case of languages such as Persian and Old Malay after Islam came to the regions where these languages were spoken. In other cases, new languages developed with already built-in Islamic semantic structures based on Arabic and even Persian, as was the case with Urdu.

Recultured Language Three forces drive the deculturation of English teaching. The trend to produce neutral materials has been discussed by a number of writers ELT Kubota, , p.

Pennycook also writes on materials producers who serve a global market desiring to produce neutral materials p. Once the language is decultured it can then be recultured. The Indonesian culture, like any, is difficult to change.

Many have turned to Islamism. Historically, Islamic civilization repressed the Western philosophy, literature and so on that would have challenged its core values, taking and developing only mathematics and medicine Mousavi, The development of an Islamic English decultured of Western values is perhaps consistent with trends. A recultured Muslim ELT may then seek to provide for Indonesia a traditionalist, anti-modern, reactionary foil to the excesses of globalizations and Western liberal values.

Can you take it anywhere.

International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5 2 , Al Faruq, Ismail Raji. Towards Islamic English. Islamization of Knowledge Series. Saudi Arabia: International Islamic Publishing House.

Alford, Danny. Demise of the Whorf Hypothesis. New Directions in the Study of Man, 4 1. Ali, Ahmed. Twilight in Delhi. Hogarth Press. Alisjahbana, S. A Collection of Essays ].

The Twilight Saga

Dian Rakyat. Alwasilah, A. Imperialisme Bahasa dan Budaya. Alwa dan D. Sugono Eds. Remaja Rosdakarya. Categories and de interpretatione, J.

Ackrill, Trans. Clarendon Press. Azkiyah, Siti Nurul. The quality of English classroom in Indonesian Madrasah and its contributing factors, [Conference presentation].

Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Political Islam in Indonesia: Asian Survey, 44 5 , Baswedan, Anies Rasyid. Beeby, C. A Guide in Planning. Bire, Jos. Mismatch English Education in Indonesia.

Boas, Franz.

The State of the Forest

Handbook of American Indian Languages Vol. Government Printing Office. Brown, Collin. A Short history of Indonesia: Brown, Roger. In Memorial Tribute to Eric Lenneberg.

Cognition, 4, Bryner, Karen. Piety projects: Islamic schools for Indonesia's urban middle class. Columbia University, United States. A new educational movement. Inside Indonesia.

Retrieved from http: In Adam Schaff, Language and cognition. New York: Designing Curriculum. Crawford, James. Hold your tongue: Reading, M. Crystal, David. English as a Global Language. Cambridge University Press. Da Costa, Agustinus Beo. Indonesian officials say no language tests for foreign workers. Jurnal Islamika,13 2 , Dardjowidjojo, S. The Role of English in Indonesia: A Dilemma.

Kumpulan Esai Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Dasi, Urmila Devi. Vaikuntha children: A gurukula classroom guidebook. US launches global push to share ELT skills. The Guardian. Retrieved from https: Using word games and pictures in teaching and retaining vocabulary: Teacher education for EIL: Working toward a situated meta-praxis.

In Aya Matsuda Ed. Principles and practices of teaching English as an International Language pp. Multilingual Matters.

Relocalizing the translingual practices of young adults in Mongolia and Bangladesh. Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts, 1 1 , Education ministry fails students.

Jakarta Post. Language Policy in British Colonial Education: Journal of Educational Administration and History, 38 3 , The re- framing process as a collaborative locus for change. Edge Ed. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the oppressed, Myra Bergman Ramos, Trans. Geertz, Clifford. The religion of Java. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press of Glencoe. Character education at schools in Indonesia. Languages of the World, 16thed.

From Ikaria to the stars: Classical mythification, ancient and modern. University of Texas Press.

Groeneboer, Kees. Gateway to the West. The Dutch language in colonial Indonesia, — A history of language policy, Mryra Scholtz, Trans. Amsterdam University Press. Towards a theory of communicative competence. Inquiry, 13 , Hage, Jerald.

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Today's Sun Position in Surabaya

He also becomes very promiscuous , having sex with high-class prostitutes , married women, and his own stepmother. Meanwhile, honest government workers like Idrus are unable to compete.

Idrus receives little compensation, and his materialistic wife Dahlia is having an affair with Suryono. The wong cilik , including prostitute Neneng, coachman Pak Idjo, and garbagemen Saimun and Itam live in hunger, ignored by the upper class.

Despite the inequality, academics and cultural observers do nothing but discuss the social woes; they never take action. Eventually, opposition newspapers uncover the corruption and fake companies used by the Indonesia Party. This causes the president to disband the cabinet and some members of the Indonesia Party to join the opposition. With this loss of forest, Indonesia is losing biodiversity, wood supply, income, and ecosystem services.

Degraded forest lands can be replanted and man-aged to provide wood, tree crops, fruits, and other non-timber products. Ecosystem services such as freshwater regulation and soil retention can be restored.

Part of the tragedy of Indonesia's forests is that the current industrial timber plantation program, and the system of forest conversion to plantation crops, have not contributed to sustainable forest management but rather have accelerated deforestation. Officially, decisions in the forest sector are no longer oriented toward clearance and conversion but, in reality, clearance and conversion continue. The system should be restructured to require the establishment of new plantations on the vast areas of degraded land that are already available for planting.

The requirement should be enforced. Indonesia is at a crossroads where much of its natural resource base has been destroyed or degraded, but much still remains. Land development for plantations to supply timber and valuable export crops is a vital part of the country's economic strategy. In coming years, the easier route will be to allow logging operations and plantations - and the wasted land that accompanies their development -- to spread over the remaining natural forests, rewarding developers with huge unearned windfall profits from forest clearance.

The harder but ultimately more sustainable route will be to reclaim the land that currently lies idle and conserve the primary forest that remains. Sixty four million hectares of forest have been cut down over the past 50 years.

There is no economic or ethical justification for another 64 million hectares to be lost over the next 50 years.This can be seen in the top level competencies for grade 10 English which run as follows my translation , 1. Eriksen, T. Religion, politics and society. Students use a notebook and return the textbook at the end of the grade.

The phenomena of disidentification may have some part in understanding fear and rejection of Western culture and English language. Some examples, firstly, Nunan had advanced the idea of task-based learning, arguably an attack against the oppressive teacher- centric classroom; but others, for example Stevick , had seen the power of teachers to provide structure to a class not as oppressive, but as a way of alleviating anxiety and allowing students to feel safe and therefore risk taking initiative Waters, , p.

Making Muslim space in North America and Europe.

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